|Correction to: Intratype variants of the E2 protein from human papillomavirus type 18 induce different gene expression profiles associated with apoptosis and cell proliferation|
The Given names of the author Alma Mariana Fuentes-González was incorrectly tagged in original publication and corrected here. The original article has been corrected.
|Molecular characterization and detection of two carlaviruses infecting cactus|
Two large contigs with sequence similarities to different carlaviruses were identified by high-throughput sequencing in samples from a cactus plant. The complete genomes of the two viruses, tentatively named “cactus carlavirus 1” (CCV-1) and “cactus carlavirus 2” (CCV-2), were determined to be 8,441 and 8,396 nucleotides long, respectively, excluding the poly(A) tail. These viruses have the typical genomic organization of members of the genus Carlavirus. CCV-1 appears to be a cactus isolate of the carlavirus HSO-2016a, with 90.1% nucleotide sequence identity between the two virus genomes, whereas CCV-2 may be classified as a member of a new species. The sequences of CCV-2 and other carlaviruses are 48.9-60.0% identical at the whole-genome level.
|Genome sequencing and characterization of three Bacillus cereus -specific phages, DK1, DK2, and DK3|
In the study, three Bacillus cereus-specific phages, named DK1, DK2 and DK3, belonging to the family Podoviridae, were isolated from Pearl River water and sludge in Guangzhou, China. The genomes of DK1, DK2 and DK3 were 27,180 bp, 26,357 bp, and 26,865 bp in length and contained 49, 45 and 46 open reading frames, respectively. Among the three phages, DK2 shared the highest genome sequence similarity (96% identity) with DK3. Genes encoding rRNA, tRNA, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance were absent in these phage genomes. In addition, comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they were novel phages of B. cereus. Each genome encoded a putative endolysin that might be of value for the control of the foodborne pathogen B. cereus.
|A novel picornavirus in feces of a rainbow lorikeet ( Trichoglossus moluccanus ) shows a close relationship to members of the genus Avihepatovirus|
A novel picornavirus, named “lorikeet picornavirus 1” (LoPV-1), was detected in a fecal sample from rainbow lorikeets using viral metagenomic analysis, and its complete genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The genome of LoPV-1 is 7862 nt long, including a 617-nt 5’ UTR, a type IV IRES 5’UTR with an ‘8-like’ motif, a 7032-nt polyprotein ORF, and a 213-nt 3’ UTR. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise asequence comparisons based on the amino acid sequences of P1, P2, and P3 indicated that LoPV-1 showed the closest relationship to two picornaviruses that were isolated recently from red-crowned cranes and clustered together with members of the genus Avihepatovirus.
|Characterization and detection of a new badnavirus infecting Epiphyllum spp.|
|Genomic sequence of a Bohle iridovirus strain isolated from a diseased boreal toad ( Anaxyrus boreas boreas ) in a North American aquarium|
Genomic sequence analysis of zoo ranavirus (ZRV) suggests it is a strain of Bohle iridovirus (BIV), a virus that was first detected in, and thought to be confined to, Australia. Furthermore, marked sequence similarity and genomic co-linearity among ZRV, BIV, and German gecko ranavirus (GGRV) are consistent with the view that all three are strains of Frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae.
|Isolation and identification of Singapore grouper iridovirus Hainan strain (SGIV-HN) in China|
In recent years, with the rapid development of marine farming activities, outbreaks of viral diseases have affected the grouper aquaculture industry, causing heavy economic losses. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is one of the most important viruses causing disease in fish. In the present study, we isolated and identified a virus from diseased groupers by coculturing the affected tissue cells with grouper spleen cells. The genome of the isolated virus shared 99.83% nucleotide sequence homology with those of SGIV reference strains in the GenBank database. The virus clustered with SGIV on an evolutionary tree constructed based on “major capsid protein” (MCP) amino acid sequences, so it was designated ‘Singapore grouper iridovirus Hainan’ (SGIV-HN). To evaluate the pathogenic potential of SGIV-HN in fish, orange-spotted groupers were infected by intraperitoneal injection with the virus. Infected groupers began to die from the fourth day after infection, and survivors tended to be stable by the eighth day. The death rate was 83.33%. In a mock-infected control group, only two fish died, and the mortality rate was 6.67%. Dissection showed that the fish had enlarged spleens with hemorrhage, and enlarged cells were visible with Giemsa staining. This is the first report of isolation of SGIV from naturally infected fish in China, and we show that SGIV-HN is highly infectious, causing massive deaths in groupers.
|Molecular characterization of a new potyvirus infecting passion fruit|
A potyvirus (isolate PFV-FJ) infecting passion fruit in China was identified by small-RNA sequencing. The complete genome sequence of PFV-FJ was determined to be 9974 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail. PFV-FJ shares 70–72% nucleotide and 69–74% amino acid sequence identity at the polyprotein level with seven reported potyviruses, but 89% nucleotide and 91% amino acid sequence identity with an unreported potyvirus, tentatively named “passionfruit Vietnam potyvirus” (PVNV-DakNong). This suggests that PFV-FJ and PVNV-DakNong should belong to the same potyvirus species and that PFV-FJ is a new member of the genus Potyvirus. This new potyvirus was tentatively named “passion fruit severe mottle-associated virus”.
|Nanopore sequencing of a novel bipartite New World begomovirus infecting cowpea|
A new bipartite begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) was detected on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants exhibiting bright golden mosaic symptoms on leaves under field conditions in Brazil. Complete consensus sequences of DNA-A and DNA-B components of an isolate of the virus (PE–088) were obtained by nanopore sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The genome components presented the typical genomic organization of New World (NW) begomoviruses. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed low levels of identity with other begomovirus species previously reported infecting cowpea around the world. Phylogenetic analysis using complete sequences of DNA-A components revealed that the closest relatives of PE–088 (85-87% nucleotide sequence identities) were three legume-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil: bean golden mosaic virus, macroptilium common mosaic virus and macroptilium yellow vein virus. According to the current classification criteria, PE–088 represents a new species in the genus Begomovirus, tentatively named as cowpea bright yellow mosaic virus (CoBYMV).
|Importance of tyrosine in the RNA-binding domain of human parainfluenza virus type 2 nucleoprotein for polymerase activity|
The RNA genome of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) is encapsidated by nucleoprotein (NP) to act as a template for RNA synthesis. We examined the importance of individual amino acids in the RNA-binding domain of hPIV2 NP for polymerase activity using a mini-replicon assay. We showed that substitution of tyrosine at amino acid position 260, located in the RNA-binding pocket of NP, severely reduced polymerase activity. The aromatic side-chain of Y260 may be required for the formation of stable contacts between nucleotides and basic amino acids, thereby affecting promoter recognition by the viral polymerase.
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