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Κυριακή, 30 Ιουνίου 2019

Gastroenterology

Serological screening for coeliac disease in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Yasin Sahin, Sezgin Sahin, Kenan Barut, Fugen Cullu Cokugras, Tulay Erkan, Amra Adrovic, Tufan Kutlu, Ozgur Kasapcopur

Abstract
Background and study aims

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is characterized by autoimmune aetiology. A gene locus 4q27 related to rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and coeliac disease is associated with susceptibility to JIA. There are reports indicating several patients with JIA had been diagnosed with CD. We aimed to assess the frequency of coeliac disease (CD) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

Patients and methods

This prospective study was carried out from October 2015 to August 2016 and included 96 patients with JIA. All patients were evaluated in terms of clinical and laboratory findings of CD. Levels of total IgA and tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA were measured in all patients. Those with increased level of tTG IgA were further tested for anti-endomysium IgA antibodies (EMA). Gastroduodenoscopy were planned for a definite diagnosis of CD in patients with positive EMA.

Results

Of the 96 patients in our study, 34 (35.4%) had oligoarticular form of JIA, 29 (30.2%) had polyarticular form, 12 (12.5%) had ERA form, 11 (11.5%) had systemic form, and 10 (10.4%) had psoriatic form. Sixteen of our patients (16.6%) were not using any drugs during the study. Neither EMA IgA antibodies were analysed nor gastro-duodenoscopy was performed because no patients were positive for tTG IgA. There was no difference in terms of tTG levels between the patients using NSAIDs or other drugs.

Conclusion

We did not find CD in children with JIA. Long term studies with more JIA patients are needed to provide more precise interpretation.



Six-minute walk test before and after large-volume paracentesis in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites: A pilot study

Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Nahed A. Makhlouf, Zainab Gaber Mahran, Samiaa Hamdy Sadek, Doaa M. Magdy, Hoda A. Makhlouf

Abstract
Background/Aims

Functional impairment is common among cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites, and improvement in functional impairment is an expected issue after paracentesis. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is considered an objective test for functional activity. No published data have evaluated the 6MWT among cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites before and after large-volume paracentesis. The research aim was to assess the feasibility of performing the 6MWT among cirrhotic patients who had refractory ascites before and after large-volume paracentesis.

Materials and Methods

Thirty-one cirrhotic inpatients with refractory ascites were subjected to pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], FEV1/FVC) and diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) before and 48 h after therapeutic large-volume paracentesis. Dyspnoea as assessed by the Borg scale and functional capacity as assessed by the 6MWT were also evaluated.

Results

Prior to paracentesis, the mean values of FVC and FEV1 were lower than the predicted values, and a significant increase was observed after paracentesis. There was improvement in the mean DLCO values after paracentesis (P < 0.05). Regarding the 6MWT, significant increases in the walked distance (6MWD) (310.7 ± 73 vs. 348.7 ± 72.3 m) and oxygen saturation after paracentesis (P = 0.001) were observed. Significant improvement in the dyspnoea scale also occurred after paracentesis (P = 0.001). A significant positive correlation between the 6MWD before paracentesis and serum albumin levels was demonstrated (r = 0.373, P = 0.039).

Conclusion

We found a decrease in pulmonary function and the 6MWD in patients who had refractory ascites, which improved significantly following large-volume paracentesis. The 6MWT is useful in detecting impaired functional capacity among cirrhotic patients.



Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions

Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Hussein Okasha, Mervat E. Behiry, Nagwa Ramadan, Reem Ezzat, Ahmed Yamany, Shaimaa El-Kholi, Ghada Ahmed

Abstract
Background and study aims

pancreatic cysts are commonly found lesions and proper diagnosis is very important for planning further management. The study aims to evaluate the role of cyst fluid amylase and tumour markers as cancer antigen (CA 19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in addition to mucin stain in diagnosing pancreatic cysts and differentiating malignant from benign lesions.

Patients and methods

This prospective study was conducted on 184 patients diagnosed to have pancreatic cystic lesions from January 2013 to January 2018. Fluid analysis for CA 19-9, CEA, amylase, mucin stain and cytopathology were done. We compared these data with the final diagnosis based on histopathology after surgical resection, positive cytopathology and long period of follow up of the patients for at least 18 months.

Results

The highest AUC was that of cystic CEA with cut-off value of 160 ng/ml; it had a sensitivity of 60.4% and a specificity of 85%. The best cut-off value for cystic CA 19-9 was 1318 U/ml with a sensitivity of 64.1% and a specificity of 68.1%. The cut-off value of cyst amylase level was 5500 U/L, with 84.2% sensitivity and 37.1% specificity. The sensitivity of mucin stain in detecting mucinous cystic neoplasm was 85.45%, specificity was 86.05% with accuracy 85.87%.

Conclusion

Cyst fluid analysis by investigating amylase, mucin, CA 19-9, CEA and EUS examination improves the diagnosis of different pancreatic cysts.



Clinical presentation and outcomes of acute diverticulitis in a Middle Eastern population

Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Jasim Alabbad, Fawaz Abdul Raheem, Saba Al-Saddah, Abdulaziz Al-Mubarak

Abstract
Background and study aims

There is lack of literature describing the presentation of diverticulitis in the Middle East population. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of the epidemiological indicators, patterns of presentation and outcomes of acute diverticulitis in a Middle Eastern population.

Patients and methods

A retrospective review of all adult patients over the age of 17 who were admitted to the surgical service with a diagnosis of acute diverticulitis between January 2010 and May 2018 at a major university affiliated government hospital in the state of Kuwait. Data collected included patients' demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome.

Results

Between January 2010 and May 2018 there were 132 patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. The mean age was 49.2 [±14.3] years. There were 89 (67.4%) men and 43 (32.6%) women. One-hundred and fifteen patients (87.1%) were Arabs, of which Kuwaiti citizens represented 58.3%. Most patients (76.5%) presented with uncomplicated diverticulitis. One hundred and twelve patients (84.8%) had sigmoid colon diverticulitis. There were nine patients that were readmitted within thirty days. The mean length of hospital stay was 5.3 days [±4.5]. The median follow-up period was 15.6 weeks (IQR 1.8, 118.4), during which time recurrent attacks occurred in 25 patients (18.9%).

Conclusions

It appears that there is a low prevalence of acute diverticulitis in Arabs living in Kuwait, and that when they do present with acute diverticulitis the majority present at a relatively younger age with uncomplicated disease.



Duodenal lymphocytosis in functional dyspepsia

Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Annalisa Capannolo, Stefano Necozione, Dolores Gabrieli, Fabiana Ciccone, Laura Sollima, Loredana Melchiorri, Angelo Viscido, Giuseppe Frieri

Abstract
Background and study aims

Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis requiring different tests, including endoscopy, often repeated over time. Duodenal biopsies are frequently resorted to, not rarely revealing duodenal microscopic inflammation. Aim of the study is to confirm a previously supposed role of antro-duodenal low-grade inflammation in functional dyspepsia, evaluating the frequency of duodenal lymphocytosis, H. pylori infection and their association in a group of patients with functional dyspepsia compared to asymptomatic control subjects.

Patients and methods

A cross-sectional, observational study has been conducted screening all the patients who underwent duodenal biopsies during upper endoscopy, in a 30 months period. All the patients without endoscopic lesions were analysed. The study group consisted of patients compatible with the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (Rome III criteria). The control group consisted of healthy asymptomatic subjects in the population subjected to endoscopy. The presence of duodenal lymphocytosis and of H. pylori infection in the two groups was evaluated.

Results

216 patients were enrolled: 161 in the functional dyspepsia group and 55 as asymptomatic control group. The frequency of duodenal lymphocytosis was similar between cases and control groups (25.47% vs 25.45%; p = 0.99), as well as H. pylori infection (26.71% vs 23.64%; p = 0.78). Duodenal lymphocytosis was significantly associated with functional dyspepsia only in H. pylori positive dyspeptic patients (p = 0.047). 94% of the subjects with both lymphocytosis and H. pylori infection suffer from dyspepsia. Duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis is significantly associated with bloating (p = 0.0082).

Conclusions

In our cohort of dyspeptic patients, duodenal lymphocytosis is significantly associated with bloating and the simultaneous presence of duodenal lymphocytosis and H. pylori infection is significantly more prevalent than in control subjects.



Egyptian liver library: An indexed database for liver disease evidence in Egypt

Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Mohamed Alboraie, Naglaa Youssef, Ahmed F Sherief, Shimaa Afify, Mohamed-Naguib Wifi, Dalia Omran, Enas Hafez, Heba Omar, Mohamed Eltabbakh, Mohamed Abdellah, Mohamed El Badry, Mohamed Salaheldin, Yasmeen Ahmed, Zainab Ali-Eldin, Amir Farid, Nermeen Abdeen, Hesham El Halwagy, Mohammad Abdalgaber, Inas Moaz, Sameera Ezzat

Abstract

Liver diseases are among the most challenging health care problems worldwide. In Egypt, we established different care programs to combat liver diseases including schistosomiasis and viral hepatitides. A lot of research work addressing liver diseases in Egypt have been published with special focus on these two major fields. Other liver disease seems to be neglected although present and contributing to the liver disease burden in Egypt. In this report we reviewed the available evidence published from Egypt and elucidate areas of weakness and future research needs. Our search for Egyptian liver disease evidence retrieved 4683 articles, 67% of them were relevant to the topic. Out of the relevant articles; 1646/3265 (50.4%) were discussing clinical science, 1131 (34.7%) were discussing basic science and 488 (14.9%) were discussing both basic and clinical sciences. Cairo university (16.8%, n = 513) and Mansoura university (9.3%, n = 285) had the largest number of publications related to liver disease in Egypt respectively. The most commonly reported diseases were hepatitis C in 719/3361 articles (21.4%), parasitic liver infestations in 663 articles (19.7%), hepatocellular carcinoma in 544 articles (16.2%), liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in 537 articles (16%), and drug induced liver injury in 516 articles (15.4%). Most of the reviewed articles (36%) were discussing treatment of chronic liver diseases (n = 1201) followed by diagnostics (28%, n = 940), pathogenesis and pathophysiology (21%, n = 706). This review will direct attention to areas with less research like hepatitis B related liver disease, HIV/HCV co-infections, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to encourage future research in these topics. In conclusion; our results ring a bell inviting the development of a roadmap for liver research in Egypt targeting to put future policies to cover areas of weakness in liver research with an ultimate goal of tackling liver disease and its overwhelming socioeconomic burden in our developing country.



Conversion to EUS-guided internal gallbladder drainage from percutaneous cholecystostomy: A successful case using a novel plastic stent

Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Yuki Hayashi, Kosuke Minaga, Tomoe Yoshikawa, Tatsuya Ishii, Hisakazu Matsumoto, Yoshito Uenoyama, Yukitaka Yamashita

Abstract

For acute cholecystitis with high surgical risk, endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) has shown high clinical and technical success rates. Dilation of the punctured fistula is a technically challenging aspect of EUS-GBD. Over-dilation makes stent insertion easier; however, it increases the risk of bile leakage. Currently, the endoscopic devices available for EUS-GBD are limited, which presents device-related shortcomings. When the stent cannot pass through the dilated fistula, the deployment of a conventional double-pigtail plastic stent requires discarding of the stent and re-puncturing of the gallbladder. Recently, a novel integral double-pigtail plastic stent tied with a pusher catheter that allows the stent to be pulled back on insertion failure was developed. Here, we describe a patient in whom EUS-GBD was successfully performed using this novel stent that enables adjustment during dilation, making EUS-GBD safer.



High prevalence of obesity among infants presenting with intussusception: Findings in an Egyptian cohort

Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Khaled Ashour, Mona Nada, Mai Ebidy, Gehad Eladely, Ahmed Elabany, Omneya M. Omar

Abstract
Background and study aims

Intussusception is a life-threatening illness, with incompletely understood aetiology, although some predisposing factors are known. Intussusception frequently occurs in well-nourished chubby infants. We aimed to determine whether patients presenting with intussusception have a high prevalence of obesity.

Patients and methods

This cross sectional study was conducted in 100 infants presenting with intussusception aged ≤2 years at the Paediatric Surgery Department. Anthropometric measures, history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, timing and type of intervention were recorded. A near median split divided the population into younger (aged < 8 months, N = 47) and older (8–24 months, N = 53) groups. Obesity was defined as having a body weight for length ≥ 97.7th centile on WHO growth charts.

Results

The study comprised 58 boys and 42 girls, 31% of whom had upper respiratory infection in the preceding month. Obesity was present in 18% of patients, based on WHO growth charts. There was a trend towards higher percentage of obese infants within the younger (25%) compared to older age groups (12%, P = 0.085), but no gender difference. Obesity did not influence the rate of success of hydrostatic reduction. Based on Egypt-specific growth charts, the percentage of infants with a weight-for-age centile ≥ 85th was 42%, of whom 7% were ≥ 97.7th centile. The corresponding percentages for the weight-for-length were 29% and 15% of patients respectively.

Conclusion

There is a high prevalence of obesity in infants presenting with intussusception, particularly under 8 months of age. The mechanistic link between obesity and the pathogenesis of intussusception deserves investigation.



Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum IL-23 in colorectal cancer

Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Dina F. Elessawi, Manal M. Alkady, Iman M. Ibrahim

Abstract
Background and study aims

Cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction of host immune responses against tumour growth and are involved in the development and progression of colorectal cancer in humans. The role of IL-23 in colorectal cancer is still unclear. Thus, we aimed to determine IL-23 levels in the development and progression of colorectal (CRC) cancer.

Patients and methods

Thirty two patients with colorectal cancer aged 60.4 ± 3.5 years. and 20 age, sex and BMI ‑matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. Serum IL-23 levels were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined using a turbidimetric immunoassay. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) were measured by radioimmunoassay.

Results

IL-23 levels were found significantly higher in patients relative to the control subjects (p < 0.001) and were gradually increased with TNM tumour stage progression. The mean CRP, CEA and CA-19-9 levels also were significantly higher in patients (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the serum levels of IL-23 and the other measured parameters in CRC patients. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for serum IL-23 was 0.955 at cut off value ≥57.15 with sensitivity 96% and specificity 100%.

Conclusion

The observed results suggest that IL-23 may have a potential role in the pathogenesis and progression of colorectal malignancy and may be a good marker of colorectal cancer and stage progression.



Covered metal stent placement followed by EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy for balloon-assisted ERCP-induced duodenal perforation

Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology

Author(s): Min Jae Yang, Jin Hong Kim, Jae Chul Hwang, Byung Moo Yoo



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
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