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Σάββατο, 29 Ιουνίου 2019

CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology

AI in Interventional Radiology: There is Momentum for High-Quality Data Registries


Intraabdominal Hemorrhage from Ruptured Ectopic Varices Treated by Antegrade Embolization via a Recanalized Paraumbilical Vein

Abstract

A 49-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated massive hemorrhagic ascites and ectopic varices fed by right colic and ileocolic veins. The varices were treated with selective embolization via a recanalized paraumbilical vein using N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Currently, no complications and rebleeding have occurred for 7 months. Antegrade embolization via a recanalized paraumbilical vein is feasible and less-invasive in a patient with massive ascites. Flow reduction may be effective for intraabdominal hemorrhage from ruptured ectopic varices.

Level of Evidence

Level 5, case report.



In Memoriam Prof. Friedrich Olbert


COLLISION Trial Seeks to Answer Time-Honored Question: "Thermal Ablation or Surgery for Colorectal Liver Metastases?"


Transhepatic Tract Embolisation After Biliary Intervention Using n -Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Autologous Blood: A Retrospective Analysis of 42 Patients

Abstract

Purpose

We evaluated the safety and efficacy of transhepatic tract embolisation after a biliary intervention using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and autologous blood.

Materials and Methods

Between January 2017 and December 2018, 42 consecutive patients (mean age: 71 ± 15 years, 24 men) with malignant (n = 26) or benign (n = 16) biliary obstructions underwent percutaneous biliary intervention followed by tract embolisation within 2 weeks. Forty-six transhepatic tracts (4 bilateral) in 42 patients were embolised using a NBCA and lipiodol mixtures (1:1–1:2 ratios) after intraductal infusion of peripherally obtained autologous blood. The indwelling catheter diameters were 8.5–14 Fr. The median interval between percutaneous biliary drainage and tract embolisation was 10 days (range 3–14 days). Glue-cast formation via fluoroscopy and immediate complications were reviewed retrospectively in medical records. Follow-up data (median: 135, range 11–720 days) including computed tomography (CT) images (n = 17) were evaluated for delayed complications and glue-cast formation.

Results

Successful glue-cast formations were achieved in all 46 tracts. No patients experienced haemorrhage, and only one patient had external bile leakage. Eight patients complained of abdominal pain (numerical scale ≤ 5) immediately after embolisation, which was controlled by analgesics. Two patients had transient fever. Segmental (n = 11) or sub-segmental (n = 6) glue-cast patterns were identified along the transhepatic tract by follow-up CT. No biliary obstructions were caused by inadvertent glue spread. Fragmented glue was detected outside the stent in one patient.

Conclusion

Transhepatic parenchymal tract embolisation with NBCA and autologous blood is a safe and feasible method for preventing bile leakage.

Level of Evidence

Level 4, Case Series.



Distal Edge Stenosis After Stent Placement for Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection: Mechanisms and Risk Factor Analysis

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze factors potentially associated with the occurrence of distal edge stenosis after stent placement for isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (ISMAD).

Materials and Methods

Cases of consecutive patients who were diagnosed with spontaneous ISMAD between February 2010 and July 2018 were retrospectively identified. Of the 123 cases identified, 45 patients (42 men; three women) underwent endovascular stent placement and were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess factors potentially associated with distal edge stenosis.

Results

The technical success rate among study patients was 100%. During 26.7 ± 17.3 months of follow-up, CT angiography demonstrated good distal edge patency in 25 patients (55.6%) and evidence of distal edge stenosis in 20 patients (44.4%). In univariate analysis, stent length (odds radio [OR] 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.06; P = .02), stent-to-vessel (S/V) diameter ratio (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.35, 3.82; P < .01), and angulation at the distal edge (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.00, 1.10; P =.03) were significantly associated with distal edge stenosis; only S/V diameter ratio (OR 3.36; 95% CI 1.41, 7.99; P < .01) and angulation at the distal edge (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01, 1.23; P =.03) retained this significance in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions

Distal edge stenosis after stent placement for ISMAD is common. S/V diameter ratio and angulation at the distal edge are independent risk factors for distal edge stenosis in patients with ISMAD who undergo stent placement.



Periprocedural Heparin During Endovascular Treatment of Tandem Lesions in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Propensity Score Analysis from TITAN Registry

Abstract

Background and Purpose

Data on safety and efficacy of periprocedural use of heparin are limited during treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation tandem occlusion. This study aimed to investigate the impact of heparin use during endovascular therapy of anterior circulation tandem occlusions on the functional and safety outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of the multicenter observational TITAN registry was performed. Patients with anterior circulation tandem occlusion and treated with endovascular therapy (EVT) were included, with or without extracranial carotid intervention. We divided patients into two groups based on periprocedural heparin use (heparin vs. non-heparin). The dose of intravenous unfractionated heparin ranged from 1500 to 2500 I.U. Primary study endpoint was 90-day Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Secondary study endpoint included angiographic and safety endpoints such as hemorrhagic complications. A propensity-score-matched analysis was performed.

Results

Among 369 patients, heparin was used in 68 patients (18.4%). In the propensity-score-matched cohort, favorable outcome (mRS 0–2) occurred in 51.3% in heparin group and 58.0% in non-heparin group (matched OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.32–1.78; P = 0.52). Similar result was found in propensity-score-adjusted cohort (adjusted OR, 0.72; 95%CI, 0.39–1.32; P = 0.28). Likewise, there was no difference in the rate of successful reperfusion (mTICI 2b-3) (propensity-score-adjusted OR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.50–2.09; P = 0.93) neither in safety endpoints between the two groups.

Conclusions

Periprocedural heparin use during EVT of anterior circulation tandem occlusions was not associated with better functional, angiographic or safety outcomes. These findings are applicable for low doses of heparin, and further studies are warranted.



Long-Term Single-Center Retrospective Follow-Up After Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Treated Over a 20-year Period: Frequency of Re-canalization with Various Embolization Materials and Clinical Outcome

Abstract

Purpose

The present study is a register-based observational study of an unselected consecutive patient cohort with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) from a single national hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and PAVM embolization center. The aim was to investigate the frequency of re-embolizations and the clinical outcome after embolization with the use of different embolization materials further, to define which PAVM morphology and size of feeding arteries that most often were re-embolized, and to estimate the clinical outcome of the patients including those that were re-embolized.

Methods

The population was included from 1996 until 2016 and was made up of a total of 136 patients with 322 PAVMs. Median follow-up was 38.3 (0.3–241 months).

Results

The re-embolization rate was 9.3%. None of the PAVMs treated with detachable silicone balloons were re-embolized, while 4.5% treated with vascular plugs and 11.7% treated with coils were re-embolized (p=0.07). In total, 16/74 complex PAVMs were re-embolized compared with 14/248 simple PAVMs. In big-sized feeding arteries ≥ 6mm, 16/112 were re-embolized compared with 14/210 with smaller-sized feeding arteries. Out of the 30 re-embolized PAVMs, 23 resulted in a successful clinical outcome.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that standard coils probably should not be the first choice for embolization of PAVMs, and vascular plug alone or in combination with coils might be a better primary option for embolization in these patients.

Level of Evidence

Level 3A, non-randomized case controlled cohort/follow-up study.



In Vivo Feasibility of Arterial Embolization with Permanent and Absorbable Suture: The FAIR-Embo Concept

Abstract

Purpose

Arterial embolization has been shown to be effective and safe for the management of bleeding, especially for postpartum and pelvic traumatic bleeding. We propose to evaluate the proof of concept of feasibility and effectiveness of arterial embolization with absorbable and non-absorbable sutures in a porcine model.

Materials and Methods

In the acute setting (n = 1), several different arteries (mesenteric, splenic, pharyngeal, kidney) were embolized using non-absorbable sutures (NAS): Mersutures braided sutures (polyethylene terephthalate). In the chronic setting (n = 3), only lower pole renal arteries were embolized. On the right side, NAS was used, whereas on the left side embolization was realized with absorbable suture (AS): Vicryl® braided suture (polyglactin 910). The chronic group was followed for 3 months. The pigs received contrast-enhanced CT the day before embolization (D-1), after the embolization (D0), at 1 month and 3 months after embolization (M1 and M3); digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was done at D0 and M3 and histological analysis at M3.

Results

All vascular targets were effectively embolized without any pre- or postoperative complications. Both DSAs and CTs at M3 showed a 100% recanalization rate for the AS embolization and a partial reversal rate for the NAS embolization. A renal hypotrophy in the embolized region was observed during both the M1 and M3 scans for both sutures (AS and NAS) with a clear hypotrophy for the NAS embolized kidney.

Conclusion

Embolization by AS and NAS (FAIR-Embo) is a feasible and effective treatment which opens up the possibility of global use of this inexpensive and widely available embolization agent.



The Safety of Continuing Therapeutic Anticoagulation During Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval: A 6-Year Retrospective Review from a Tertiary Centre

Abstract

Purpose

Assess the safety of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter retrieval in patients taking anticoagulation, compared to a non-anticoagulated cohort.

Materials and Methods

Single-centre retrospective analysis of patients who underwent IVC filter retrieval between January 2012 and February 2018. Information about patient demographics, anticoagulation, tilt, major and minor complications was collected. Major complications were defined as: IVC injury from the filter retrieval, retained fragment of filter, filter fracture and filter embolisation. Minor complications were defined as: neck haematoma and puncture site infection.

Results

Total of 357 patients (age 18–95, Male: 231) underwent IVC filter retrieval, comprising of Cook Celect Platinum, Cook Celect, and ALN-branded filters. Of these 182 patients were on anticoagulation and 175 patients were not on anticoagulation, based on the indication for the filter (thrombosis or prophylaxis) and at the discretion of the referring unit who were managing the anticoagulation. IVC filter retrieval was technically successful in 349 patients. Five major complications (1.4% of retrievals) were recorded and no minor complications (0% of retrievals). In the anticoagulation cohort, there were two major complications (1.1% of retrievals) both related to IVC injury. In the non-anticoagulated cohort, there were three major complications (1.7% of retrievals) relating to filter embolisation, IVC injury, and filter fracture.

Conclusions

IVC filter retrieval is a safe procedure with a low complication rate. Being on anticoagulation does not increase the risk of a major complication or change the management of major complication compared with a non-anticoagulated cohort. IVC filter retrieval is safe to perform in patients currently taking prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation based on our cohort.

Level of Evidence

Level 3, retrospective cohort study.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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