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Σάββατο, 29 Ιουνίου 2019

Animal Microbiome

Impact of coccidiostat and phytase supplementation on gut microbiota composition and phytate degradation in broiler chickens

Abstract

Background

There is good evidence for a substantial endogenous phytase activity originating from the epithelial tissue or the microbiota resident in the digestive tract of broiler chickens. However, ionophore coccidiostats, which are frequently used as feed additives in broiler diets to prevent coccidiosis, might affect the bacterial composition and the abundance of phytase producers in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplementation of a frequently used mixture of the coccidiostats Narasin and Nicarbazin alone or together with a phytase affects microbiota composition of the digestive tract of broiler chickens, characteristics of phytate breakdown in crop and terminal ileum, and precaecal phosphorus and crude protein digestibility.

Results

Large differences in the microbial composition and diversity were detected between the treatments with and without coccidiostat supplementation. Disappearance of myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) in the digestive tract, precaecal P digestibility, inorganic P in blood serum, and the concentration of inositol phosphate isomers in the crop and ileum digesta were significantly affected by phytase supplementation, but not by coccidiostat supplementation. Crude protein digestibility was increased by coccidiostat supplementation when more phosphate was available. Neither microbial abundance and diversity nor any other trait measured at the end of the experiment was affected by coccidiostat when it was only supplemented from day 1 to 10 of age.

Conclusions

The coccidiostats used herein had large effects on overall microbiota composition of the digestive tract. The coccidiostats did not seem to affect endogenous or exogenous phytase activity up to the terminal ileum of broiler chickens. The effects of phytase on growth, phosphorus digestibility, and myo-inositol release were not altered by the presence of the coccidiostats. The effects of phytase and coccidiostats on nutrient digestibility can be of significant relevance for phosphorus and protein-reduced feeding concepts if confirmed in further experiments.



Correction to: Effect of the macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis on methane production and rumen microbiome assemblage

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Effect of the macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis on methane production and rumen microbiome assemblage

Abstract

Background

Recent studies using batch-fermentation suggest that the red macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis has the potential to reduce methane (CH4) production from beef cattle by up to ~ 99% when added to Rhodes grass hay; a common feed in the Australian beef industry. These experiments have shown significant reductions in CH4 without compromising other fermentation parameters (i.e. volatile fatty acid production) with A. taxiformis organic matter (OM) inclusion rates of up to 5%. In the study presented here, A. taxiformis was evaluated for its ability to reduce methane production from dairy cattle fed a mixed ration widely utilized in California, the largest milk producing state in the US.

Results

Fermentation in a semi-continuous in-vitro rumen system suggests that A. taxiformis can reduce methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cattle by 95% when added at a 5% OM inclusion rate without any obvious negative impacts on volatile fatty acid production. High-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing showed that seaweed amendment effects rumen microbiome consistent with the Anna Karenina hypothesis, with increased β-diversity, over time scales of approximately 3 days. The relative abundance of methanogens in the fermentation vessels amended with A. taxiformis decreased significantly compared to control vessels, but this reduction in methanogen abundance was only significant when averaged over the course of the experiment. Alternatively, significant reductions of CH4 in the A. taxiformis amended vessels was measured in the early stages of the experiment. This suggests that A. taxiformis has an immediate effect on the metabolic functionality of rumen methanogens whereas its impact on microbiome assemblage, specifically methanogen abundance, is delayed.

Conclusions

The methane reducing effect of A. taxiformis during rumen fermentation makes this macroalgae a promising candidate as a biotic methane mitigation strategy for dairy cattle. But its effect in-vivo (i.e. in dairy cattle) remains to be investigated in animal trials. Furthermore, to obtain a holistic understanding of the biochemistry responsible for the significant reduction of methane, gene expression profiles of the rumen microbiome and the host animal are warranted.



Welcome to Animal Microbiome


Distinct microbiotas of anatomical gut regions display idiosyncratic seasonal variation in an avian folivore

Abstract

Background

Current knowledge about seasonal variation in the gut microbiota of vertebrates is limited to a few studies based on mammalian fecal samples. Seasonal changes in the microbiotas of functionally distinct gut regions remain unexplored. We investigated seasonal variation (summer versus winter) and regionalization of the microbiotas of the crop, ventriculus, duodenum, cecum, and colon of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), an avian folivore specialized on the toxic foliage of sagebrush (Artemesia spp.) in western North America.

Results

We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on an Illumina MiSeq and obtained 6,639,051 sequences with a median of 50,232 per sample. These sequences were assigned to 457 bacterial and 4 archaeal OTUs. Firmicutes (53.0%), Bacteroidetes (15.2%), Actinobacteria (10.7%), and Proteobacteria (10.1%)were the most abundant and diverse phyla. Microbial composition and richness showed significant differences among gut regions and between summer and winter. Gut region explained almost an order of magnitude more variance in our dataset than did season or the gut region × season interaction. The effect of season was uneven among gut regions. Microbiotas of the crop and cecum showed the greatest seasonal differences.

Conclusions

Our data suggest that seasonal differences in gut microbiota reflect seasonal variation in the microbial communities associated with food and water. Strong differentiation and uneven seasonal changes in the composition and richness of the microbiota among functionally distinct gut regions demonstrate the necessity of wider anatomical sampling for studies of composition and dynamics of the gut microbiota.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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