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Παρασκευή, 28 Ιουνίου 2019

Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 36: Unique Hair Properties that Emerge from Combinations of Multiple Races
The fusion of ethnicity in human populations is becoming increasingly common, so the conventional definition of ethnicity is going to become deficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the hair properties which emerge from combinations of multiple races. Hair fibers collected from mixed-race subjects were investigated and classifications of hair shape as well as measurements of thickness, ellipticity and surface damage were carried out. The results show that hair shapes varied widely: straight hair and very curly hair often existed together on the heads of individuals with mixed ethnicity. Curly hair tended to be thicker than loose wavy hair. As for damage to the hair surface, the hairs of mixed-race subjects showed a very unique property in that they were much more severely damaged near the root (the proximal end) than the hairs of monoracial subjects. The hair shape (curly or loose wavy) was not related to the level of damage. The severe damage near the proximal end is thought to be caused by entanglement, due to the presence of various curl phases. This study reports the unique characteristics of hairs of subjects with mixed ethnicity, which have never been noted in the previous studies on subjects with a monoracial background.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 35: Development and Characterization of New Topical Hydrogels Based on Alpha Lipoic Acid—Hydrotalcite Hybrids
Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a well-known anti-aging compound. The activity of this molecule is limited by two important factors: (i) The low stability to oxidation and thermal processes and (ii) the low solubility. Particularly the latter limits ALA formulation in hydrophilic bases. The purpose of this paper is to present a new technological approach to stabilize lipoic acid in topical hydrogels for cosmetic use. With this aim, ALA was intercalated in two different lamellar anionic clays (hydrotalcites), MgAl and ZnAl, obtaining the hybrids MgAl-ALA and ZnAl-ALA. The intercalation allows to obtain a more manageable product in comparison to raw ALA. After the preliminary characterization, hydrogels containing the hybrids were prepared and characterized, also in comparison to the commercial product Tiobec® in terms of rheological properties, stability to temperature and centrifugation, release, and cytotoxicity. The obtained results highlighted that the hydrogel containing MgAl-ALA is a suitable alternative to the products currently available on the market.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 34: A New Gelling Agent and Rheology Modifier in Cosmetics: Caesalpinia spinosa Gum
Caesalpinia spinosa gum is a vegetal polysaccharide obtained by grinding the endosperm of Caesalpinia spinosa seeds. It is commonly used as a rheology modifier in food industry. Its rheological behavior, compatibility with common cosmetic ingredients, and application as a thickener in different types of cosmetic formulations were investigated in this article. At low concentrations (0.1–0.2%) the behavior is Newtonian; at higher percentages (0.5–2.0%) it is pseudoplastic without thixotropy. The gum was tested in combination with salts, chelating agents, humectants, thickeners, pigments, nano UV filters, surfactants, conditioners, and ethanol, as well as in acidic/alkaline conditions. The wide compatibility and the interesting sensory profile, even in association with other thickeners, make the Caesalpinia spinosa gum a very promising ingredient for the thickening of various cosmetic products.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 33: Epidermal Endocannabinoid System (EES) and its Cosmetic Application
Recently, cannabis, or its major constituent cannabidiol (CBD), has emerged as an attractive cosmetic ingredient. Initiated as a basic investigation of the physiological roles of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, endocannabinoids’ diverse potential benefits have been proposed for using cannabinoid receptor modulating compounds in skin health. Improvement in skin barrier functions, alleviating inflammatory responses, and the relief of itching sensations are some commonly expected therapeutic benefits, which have been supported by many in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. While hemp seed oils or hemp extracts might be used for the cosmetic formulation, the potential for contamination with a psychoactive cannabinoid, such as 9-THC, should be carefully checked. Instead of using hemp-derived ingredients, the use of cannabinomimetics, synthetic ligands on cannabinoid receptors, or entourage compounds (which modulate intracellular synthesis and the degradation of endocannabinoids), have been tried. In this review, a brief introduction of the epidermal endocannabinoid system (EES) and its physiological roles will be followed by a review of the cosmetic and dermatologic application of cannabinomimetics and entourage compounds. The practical application of newly developed endocannabinomimetics will be discussed as well.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 32: Known and Unknown Features of Hair Cuticle Structure: A Brief Review
The cuticle is the outermost layer of overlapping flattened cells of hair and has been subjected to many years of study to understand its structure and how it develops in the follicle. The essential function of the cuticle with its tough inelastic protein content is to protect the inner cortex that provides the elastic properties of hair. Progress in our knowledge of hair came from studies with the electron microscope, initially transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for internal structure and later the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for cuticle surface shape and for investigating changes caused by various environmental influences such as cosmetic treatments and industrial processing of wool. Other physical techniques have been successfully applied in conjunction with proteomics. The outstanding internal features of the cuticle cells are the internal layers consisting of keratin filament proteins and the keratin-associated proteins. The stability and physical toughness of the cuticle cell is partly accounted for by the high content of disulphide crosslinking. The material between the cells that holds them tightly together, the cell membrane complex, consists of a layer of lipid on both sides of a central protein layer. The lipid contains 18-methyleicosanoic acid that is part of the hydrophobic lipid surface of hair. For the past decade there have been aspects that remained unanswered because they are difficult to study. Some of these are discussed in this brief review with suggestions for experimental approaches to shed more light.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 31: Degradation of Hair Surface: Importance of 18-MEA and Epicuticle
In this paper, surface degradation of hair is reviewed. Surface properties such as hydrophobicity and surface friction change as surface structures of hair fiber, that is, 18-methyleicosanoic acid (18-MEA) and epicuticle, degrade. Comparison of contact angle and amount of 18-MEA from root to tip of the sampled hair fibers clarified the contribution of not only 18-MEA but also epicuticle to surface properties. It was found that chemical treatment by itself, such as bleaching, is not enough to cause complete loss of hydrophobic nature even after 18-MEA is removed. Additional weathering processes, such as repeatedly shampooing, are required. A technology for the deposition of a persistent hydrophobicity to bleached and weathered hair surfaces using 18-MEA is presented. Combination of 18-MEA with specific cationic surfactants (Stearoxypropyldimethylamine: SPDA) made the bleached and weathered hair surface hydrophobic, and its hydrophobicity was maintained even after shampooing. Characterization of adsorbed layers of 18-MEA/SPDA on a mica surface, as a possible hydrophilic surface model, was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The effects of the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA to create a persistent hydrophobicity with 18-MEA/SPDA were investigated using controlled AFM. It was revealed that the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA in the 18-MEA/SPDA system produces a persistent hydrophobicity by providing higher fluidity to the upper region of the 18-MEA/SPDA layer. The contribution to hair beauty and sensory feeling as one of the practical functions of the hair surface is described in this paper. The hydrophobic nature of the hair surface reduces surface friction in a wet state, which reduces hair disorder alignment. It is also revealed that the moisturized or dried out feeling strongly depends on the hair shape (meandering and diameter) which depends on hair surface properties in a wet environment.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 30: Effects of a Phenol-Enriched Purified Extract from Olive Mill Wastewater on Skin Cells
Olive trees (Olea europaea) and their processed products, such as olive oil, play a major role in the Mediterranean way of life. Their positive impact on human health is being intensely investigated. One research topic is the identification of new application areas of olive mill wastewater (OMWW). OMWW is characterized by the high content of polyphenols possessing many positive health effects. Thus, the phenol-enriched OMWW extract offers the potential for the treatment of skin disorders and for cosmetic application. The aim of the present study was to evaluate cell viability and proliferation, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of a phenol-enriched OMWW extract on an immortal keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Moreover, the influence on the growth of various microorganisms was investigated; furthermore, the effects on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and human melanoma cells (A375) were studied in a commercially available tumor invasion skin model. The phenol-enriched OMWW extract showed excellent antimicrobial activity. Moreover, a noticeable reduction in reactive oxygen species formation as well as Interleukin-8 release in HaCaT cells were observed. Finally, the inhibited growth of A375 melanoma nodules in the melanoma skin model could be shown. Our results indicate that the OMWW extract is a promising ingredient for dermal applications to improve skin health and skin protection as well as having a positive impact on skin ageing.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 29: The Regulation of Personalized Cosmetics in the EU
Personalized or customized cosmetics are increasing in popularity. While compliance with the EU Cosmetics Regulation 1223/2009 is mandatory, there are no clear guidelines to ensure their compliance. While cosmetic products are subject to numerous regulations, permitting their sale within the European Single Market, this article focusses on the requirements of the Cosmetics Regulation 1223/2009. Certain provisions of the Regulation are considered and possible solutions proposed to enable the safe use of personalized cosmetics placed on the market.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 28: Analysis of Heavy Metal Content in Conventional and Herbal Toothpastes Available at Maltese Pharmacies
Although toothpastes are considered as topical cosmetics that are not normally ingested, it is evident that they may contribute to the introduction of heavy metals and xenobiotics through buccal and gastrointestinal absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential presence of metals and polyphenols in conventional, children’s and herbal toothpastes. Metal analysis was conducted by using the Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer and the total polyphenolic content was determined by using the Folin–Ciocalteu test. Results showed that cadmium and mercury were absent in all toothpastes while zinc and tin exhibited high values. This was because the latter two metals are incorporated as part of the ingredients. In the case of polyphenols, the highest value was obtained in one of the samples from the children’s toothpaste category while the lowest value was obtained from the conventional toothpaste category. Lead and nickel were two other metals that fell outside the limits for EU and US standards. Most of these limits are usually applicable to topical cosmetic products or food products. However, these may not adequately cover oral hygiene products, such as toothpastes.
Cosmetics, Vol. 6, Pages 27: Phytomelatonin Regulates Keratinocytes Homeostasis Counteracting Aging Process
Phytomelatonin (PM) gained the greatest interest for its application in agriculture and its use to improve human health conditions. PM based supplement has been shown to possess antioxidant capabilities because it functions as a free radical scavenger. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), induced by both intrinsic (peroxide production) and extrinsic (UV-radiation) factors are biochemical mediators crucial in skin aging. Skin aging is also regulated by specific microRNAs (miRs). Herein we have shown the effect of PM free radical scavengers on the human keratinocyte cell line HaCat and on ROS formation induced by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors as well as their capability to positively modulate a member of the hsa-miR-29 family linked to aging. Our result highlights the regulatory role of PM for the keratinocytes homeostasis.

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