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Πέμπτη, 19 Σεπτεμβρίου 2019

All In
In his medical school application essay in 2011, my cousin Joey, a ping-pong champion, described the way the sport connected him to the world, from which he’d long felt separated: it gave him a sense of control. "The angles, velocities, and trajectories of the ball," he wrote, "give way to…
The New England Journal of Medicine: Search Results in Primary Care\Hospitalist\Clinical Practice
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Polypill for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in an Underserved Population
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Persons with low socioeconomic status and nonwhite persons are particularly vulnerable and have high cardiovascular mortality. There is wide geographic variation, with disproportionate disease burden in…
The New England Journal of Medicine: Search Results in Primary Care\Hospitalist\Clinical Practice
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Anticoagulation for Subsegmental Pulmonary Embolism
Five days after undergoing major surgery, Mr. Jackson is found to have a subsegmental pulmonary embolus, with symptoms for which no alternative diagnosis is found. Regardless of whether we consider this to be a symptomatic or incidental embolus, the patient would require a limited 3-month course of…
The New England Journal of Medicine: Search Results in Primary Care\Hospitalist\Clinical Practice
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Why Is a Cow? Curiosity, Tweetorials, and the Return to Why
I recently had the following exchange with my 4-year-old daughter while reading her favorite book at bedtime: Me: " . . . with Emma Rose inside." Daughter: "Why was Emma Rose in the house?" Me: "Because she was sleeping." Daughter: "Why was she sleeping?" Me: "Because it was nighttime." Daughter:…
The New England Journal of Medicine: Search Results in Primary Care\Hospitalist\Clinical Practice
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation and Coronary Artery Disease
The Food and Drug Administration approved the first direct oral anticoagulant nearly a decade ago. Since then, antithrombotic therapy has evolved swiftly, with research systematically addressing the use of these agents for the treatment of common medical conditions, such as atrial fibrillation. Of…
The New England Journal of Medicine: Search Results in Primary Care\Hospitalist\Clinical Practice
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Creating a Learning Health System through Rapid-Cycle, Randomized Testing
Last year at NYU Langone Health, we showed millions of best-practice alerts in the electronic health record system to prompt physicians to avoid adverse events and to promote guideline-based care. We called hundreds of patients to remind them that they were overdue for their annual physical…
The New England Journal of Medicine: Search Results in Primary Care\Hospitalist\Clinical Practice
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
A revision of rapid colistin desensitization
Polymyxins, namely colistimethate sodium (colistin or polymyxin E) and polymyxin B, are used for multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacterial infections, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii 1. As treatments and therapy have advanced, patients with cystic fibrosis are living longer. However, these patients have high exposure to intravenous antibiotics, most commonly penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. With colonization or infections with resistant gram-negative...
Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Accuracy of implant position when placed using static computer-assisted implant surgical guides manufactured with two different optical scanning techniques: a randomized clinical trial
Data from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and optical scans (intraoral or model scanner) are required for computer-assisted implant surgery (CAIS). This study compared the accuracy of implant position when placed with CAIS guides produced by intraoral and extraoral (model) scanning. Forty-seven patients received 60 single implants by means of CAIS. Each implant was randomly assigned to either the intraoral group (n=30) (Trios Scanner, 3Shape) or extraoral group (n=30), in which stereolithographic...
Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Body Adiposity and Endocrine Profile of Female Wistar Rats of Distinct Ages that were Early Weaned
Horm Metab ResDOI: 10.1055/a-0966-8784Early weaning (EW) is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Male rats that were precociously weaned present neonatal malnutrition and, in adulthood, developed overweight, accumulation of body fat, dyslipidemia, changes in glycemic homeostasis, hyperleptinemia, and increase of vitamin D. As metabolic profile of early-weaned females is not known, we investigated the endocrine-metabolic parameters in adolescence and adult female rats of 2 different EW models. Wistar...
Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung
Thu Sep 19, 2019 02:00
Macrophage Exclusion after Radiation Therapy (MERT): A First in Human Phase I/II Trial using a CXCR4 Inhibitor in Glioblastoma
Purpose: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that post-irradiation tumor revascularization is dependent on a stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-driven process in which myeloid cells are recruited from bone marrow. Blocking this axis results in survival improvement in preclinical models of solid tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). We conducted a phase I/II study to determine the safety and efficacy of Macrophage Exclusion after Radiation Therapy (MERT)...
Clinical Cancer Research Online First Articles
Thu Sep 19, 2019 18:29
3D effects of a bone-anchored intra-oral protraction in treating class III growing patient: a pilot study
The aim of this prospective case series study is to assess the three-dimensional (3D) skeletal and soft tissue effects of the alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol in conjun...
Progress in Orthodontics - Latest Articles
Wed Sep 18, 2019 03:00
Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction
Large clinical trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes have shown that inhibitors of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure. Most patients in these trials did not have heart failure at baseline, so the benefit of treatment with an SGLT2…
NEJM : Research
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Induction Chemotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a head and neck cancer with a specific geographic distribution. It affected an estimated 130,000 patients worldwide in 2018, with the highest rates occurring in regions in South China, Southeastern Asia, and North Africa. More than 70% of patients receive a diagnosis of…
NEJM : Research
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Maribavir for Preemptive Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection commonly complicates hematopoietic-cell and solid-organ transplantation and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The available anti-CMV agents are effective but are limited by their toxic effects, including myelosuppression (ganciclovir and…
NEJM : Research
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Long-read sequencing in deciphering human genetics to a greater depth
Abstract Through four decades’ development, DNA sequencing has inched into the era of single-molecule sequencing (SMS), or the third-generation sequencing (TGS), as represented by two distinct technical approaches developed independently by Pacific Bioscience (PacBio) and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). Historically, each generation of sequencing technologies was marked by innovative technological achievements and novel applications. Long reads (LRs) are considered as the most...
Human Genetics
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
MDH1 deficiency is a metabolic disorder of the malate–aspartate shuttle associated with early onset severe encephalopathy
Abstract The reversible oxidation of l-malate to oxaloacetate is catalyzed by NAD(H)-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH). MDH plays essential roles in the malate–aspartate shuttle and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. These metabolic processes are important in mitochondrial NADH supply for oxidative phosphorylation. Recently, bi-allelic mutations in mitochondrial MDH2 were identified in patients with global developmental delay, epilepsy and lactic acidosis. We now report two patients...
Human Genetics
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
S‐Allyl Cysteine Inhibits TNF‐α Induced Inflammation in HaCaT Keratinocytes by Inhibition of NF‐kB‐Dependent Gene Expression via Sustained ERK Activation
Abstract Tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) induced keratinocyte inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory skin diseases. Here we investigated the anti‐inflammatory effect of S‐allyl cysteine (SAC) on TNF‐α induced HaCaT keratinocyte cells and the mechanism behind its anti‐inflammatory potential. SAC was found to inhibit TNF‐α stimulated cytokine expression. Further SAC was found to inhibit TNF‐α induced activation of p38, JNK and NF‐kB pathways. Interestingly, SAC...
Experimental Dermatology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 14:43
Atlas of the Neuromuscular System in the Trachymedusa Aglantha digitale: Insights from the advanced hydrozoan [NEW RESULTS]
Cnidaria is the sister taxon to bilaterian animals, and therefore, represents a key reference lineage to understand early origins and evolution of the neural systems. The hydromedusa Aglantha digitale is arguably the best electrophysiologically studied jellyfish because of its system of giant axons and unique fast swimming/escape behaviors. Here, using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry together with phalloidin labeling, we systematically characterize both neural...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
An African origin for Mycobacterium bovis [NEW RESULTS]
Background and objectivesMycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae are the two most important agents of tuberculosis (TB) in livestock and the most important causes of zoonotic TB in humans. However, little is known about the global population structure, phylogeography and evolutionary history of these pathogens. MethodologyWe compiled a global collection of 3364 whole-genome sequences from M. bovis and M. caprae originating from 35 countries and inferred their phylogenetic relationships, geographic...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
A tale of winglets: evolution of flight morphology in stick insects [NEW RESULTS]
The evolutionary transition between winglessness and a full-winged morphology requires selective advantage for intermediate forms. Conversely, repeated secondary wing reductions among the pterygotes indicates relaxation of such selection. However, evolutionary trajectories of such transitions are not well characterized. The stick insects (Phasmatodea) exhibit diverse wing sizes at both interspecific and intersexual levels, and thus provide a system for examining how selection on flight capability,...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Invasion implies substitution in ecological communities with class-structured populations [NEW RESULTS]
Long-term evolution of quantitative traits is classically and usefully described as the directional change in phenotype due to the recurrent fixation of new mutations. A formal justification for such continual evolution ultimately relies on the "invasion implies substitution" principle. This states that whenever a mutant allele causing a small phenotypic change can successfully invade a population, the ancestral (or wild-type) allele will be replaced, whereby fostering gradual phenotypic change if...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Convergent evolution and structural adaptation in the eukaryotic chaperonin CCT{alpha} of deep-sea brittle stars [NEW RESULTS]
The deep ocean is the largest biome on Earth and yet it is among the least studied environments of our planet. Life at great depths requires several specific adaptations, however their molecular mechanisms remain understudied. We examined patterns of positive selection in 416 genes from four brittle star (Ophiuroidea) families displaying independent events of deep-sea colonization (288 individuals from 216 species). We found consistent signatures of molecular convergence in five genes, including...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Mesoamerica is a cradle and the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a museum of Neotropical butterfly diversity (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Brassolini) [NEW RESULTS]
Regional species diversity is ultimately explained by speciation, extinction, and dispersal. Here we estimate dispersal and speciation rates in Neotropical rainforest biomes to propose an explanation for the distribution and diversity of extant butterfly species. We focus on the butterfly tribe Brassolini (Owl butterflies and allies): a Neotropical group that comprises 17 genera and 108 species, most of them endemic to rainforest biomes. We infer a total-evidence species tree of Brassolini using...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Multi-scale predictions of drug resistance epidemiology suggest a new design principle for rational drug design. [NEW RESULTS]
A critical goal in drug discovery is the rational design of therapeutics that last longer in the face of biological evolution. However, this goal is thwarted by the astonishing diversity and stochasticity of mutational paths in the clinic. Beyond biophysical predictions of thermodynamics, we present stochastic, first principles models of evolution built on a large in vitro dataset that accurately predict the epidemiologic abundance of mutations to three different drugs across multiple leukemia clinical...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Leveraging targeted sequencing for non-model species: a step-by-step guide to obtain a reduced SNP set and a pipeline to automate data processing in the Antarctic Midge, Belgica antarctica. [NEW RESULTS]
The sequencing of whole or partial (e.g. reduced representation) genomes are commonly employed in molecular ecology and conservation genetics studies. However, due to sequencing costs, a trade-off between the number of samples and genome coverage can hinder research for non-model organisms. Furthermore, the processing of raw sequences requires familiarity with coding and bioinformatic tools that are not always available. Here, we present a guide for isolating a set of short, SNP-containing genomic...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
A sex chromosome inversion is associated with copy number variation of mitochondrial DNA in zebra finch sperm [NEW RESULTS]
Propulsion of sperm cells via movement of the flagellum is of vital importance for successful fertilization. Presumably, the energy for this movement comes from the mitochondria in the sperm midpiece. Larger midpieces may contain more mitochondria, which should enhance the energetic capacity and hence promote mobility. Due to an inversion polymorphism on their sex chromosome TguZ, zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis) exhibit large within-species variation in sperm midpiece length, and those...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
nkx3.2 mutant zebrafish accommodate the jaw joint loss through a phenocopy of the head shapes of Paleozoic agnathans [NEW RESULTS]
The vertebrate jaw is a versatile feeding apparatus that facilitated explosive diversification. Its functions require a joint between the upper and lower jaws, so jaw joint defects - such as osteoarthritis or even ankylosis - are often highly disruptive and difficult to study. To describe consequences of jaw joint dysfunction, we engineered two independent null alleles of a single jaw-joint marker gene, nkx3.2, in zebrafish. The mutations caused the fish to become functionally jawless via a fusion...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Disrupted gene networks in subfertile hybrid house mice [NEW RESULTS]
The Dobzhansky-Muller model provides a widely accepted mechanism for the evolution of reproductive isolation: incompatible substitutions disrupt interactions between genes. To date, few candidate incompatibility genes have been identified, leaving the genes driving speciation mostly uncharacterized. The importance of interactions in the Dobzhansky-Muller model suggests that gene coexpression networks provide a powerful framework to understand disrupted pathways associated with postzygotic isolation....
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
Evolution rapidly optimizes stability and aggregation in lattice proteins despite pervasive landscape valleys and mazes [NEW RESULTS]
Fitness landscapes are widely used to visualize the dynamics and long-term outcomes of evolution. The fitness landscapes of genetic sequences are characterized by high dimensionality and "ruggedness" due to sign epistasis. Ascending from low to high fitness on such landscapes can be difficult because adaptive trajectories get stuck at low-fitness local peaks. Compounding matters, recent computational complexity arguments have proposed that extremely long, winding adaptive paths may be required to...
bioRxiv Subject Collection: Evolutionary Biology
Thu Sep 19, 2019 03:00
[ASAP] Is Infrared Spectroscopy Ready for the Clinic?
Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02280
Analytical Chemistry
Thu Sep 19, 2019 07:00
[ASAP] Thermal Field-Flow Fractionation for Characterization of Architecture in Hyperbranched Aromatic-Aliphatic Polyesters with Controlled Branching
Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02664
Analytical Chemistry
Thu Sep 19, 2019 07:00
[ASAP] Probing the Fundamentals of Native Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry of Proteins: Can Proteins Refold during Extraction?
Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02075
Analytical Chemistry
Thu Sep 19, 2019 07:00
[ASAP] Deep Neural Networks for Classification of LC-MS Spectral Peaks
Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02983
Analytical Chemistry
Thu Sep 19, 2019 07:00
[ASAP] Laser Spectroscopy for Monitoring of Radiocarbon in Atmospheric Samples
Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02496
Analytical Chemistry
Thu Sep 19, 2019 07:00
[ASAP] Simultaneous Isolation of Nonadjacent <italic toggle="yes">m</italic>/<italic toggle="yes">z</italic> Ions Using Mirror Switching in an Electrostatic Linear Ion Trap
Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b03560
Analytical Chemistry
Thu Sep 19, 2019 07:00
Construction and characterization of immunoliposomes targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) plays an important regulatory role in tumor cell proliferation and drug resistance. FGFR3 is often constitutively active in many tumors. To deliver drugs into tumor ...
Applied and Industrial Microbiology
Wed Sep 18, 2019 03:00
The first fungal laccase with an alkaline pH optimum obtained by directed evolution and its application in indigo dye decolorization
Engineering of fungal laccases with optimum catalytic activity at alkaline pH has been a long-lasting challenge. In this study, a mutant library containing 3000 clones was obtained by error-prone PCR to adapt ...
Applied and Industrial Microbiology
Wed Sep 18, 2019 03:00
The impact of graft remodeling on peri‐implant bone support at implants placed concomitantly with transcrestal sinus floor elevation.A multicenter, retrospective case series
Abstract Objectives to evaluate the impact on peri‐implant bone support (as assessed on periapical radiographs) of the remodeling dynamics of varying graft biomaterials used for transcrestal sinus floor elevation (tSFE). Methods The study is a multicenter, retrospective series of cases undergone tSFE (performed according to the Smart Lift technique) and concomitant implant placement. At operator's discretion, tSFE was performed with bone core (BC) alone or supplemented by deproteinized...
Clinical Oral Implants Research
Wed Sep 18, 2019 19:55

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