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Πέμπτη, 4 Ιουλίου 2019

Abnormal Child Psychology

Depression and ADHD-Related Risk for Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Concurrent and Prospective Associations in the MTA

Abstract

Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prospectively linked to substance use and disorder. Depression emerging in adolescence is an understudied risk factor that may explain some of this risk. In the present study, we considered mediating and moderating roles of adolescent depression in explaining this association by using longitudinal data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA). Participants were 547 children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD Combined Type, and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children. In adolescence, depressive symptoms did not exacerbate effects of childhood ADHD on any substance use. For both groups, time-varying and average depressive symptoms were associated with more frequent use of all substances. Prospectively, we found no evidence of depression mediation to adult substance use. However, adolescent depression moderated the association between childhood ADHD and adult marijuana use. Although adults without ADHD histories used marijuana more frequently if they had elevated depressive symptoms in adolescence, marijuana use by adults with ADHD histories was independent of their adolescent depression. In adulthood, depression diagnoses and ADHD persistence continued to operate as independent, additive correlates of substance use risk. Our findings suggest a circumscribed role for depression in substance use risk that adds to, but does not alter or explain, ADHD-related risk.



Frontal Brain Asymmetry and the Trajectory of Shyness Across the Early School Years

Abstract

Although resting right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry has been linked to avoidance and withdrawal-related behaviors such as shyness in previous cross-sectional studies, relatively little research has examined the influence of frontal brain electrical activity on the development of shyness in children using a prospective, longitudinal study design. Here, we tested whether resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted the trajectory of children's shyness across five assessments. Children were enrolled in the study during the summer prior to grade 1 (N = 37; Mage = 6.39 years, S.D. = 0.15 years), at which time resting frontal EEG activity and maternal report of children's shyness were collected. Mothers then reported on their child's shyness over another four follow-up assessments, spanning 2 years (winter of grade 1, summer prior to grade 2 entry, winter of grade 2, and summer prior to grade 3). Growth curve analysis revealed that children displaying greater relative right frontal EEG activity had lower levels of shyness relative to children exhibiting greater relative left frontal EEG activity at study enrollment (i.e., age 6), but displayed statistically significant linear increases in shyness across time, with the highest levels of shyness by the summer prior to grade 3 (i.e., age 8). There was, however, no relation between left frontal EEG asymmetry and change in shyness across time. These preliminary findings suggest that right frontal EEG asymmetry may reflect a biological diathesis for the growth of shyness during the early school years.



A Dynamic Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Psychological Difficulties, and Stressful Life Events during Early Adolescence

Abstract

Although numerous studies have established linkages between shyness and later psychological difficulties, most extant research did not examine variation in shyness over time in relation to variation in psychological difficulties over time or possible environmental factors of influence outside of the school context. The current study used multi-level modelling to simultaneously examine time-invariant and time-variant associations between shyness, the psychological difficulties of depressive symptoms and loneliness, and stressful life events at four waves across 1 year in a community sample of 271 young adolescents (51% boys; Mage = 11.83 years at W1). Results revealed significant time-variant and time-invariant effects when loneliness was examined as a predictor of shyness. In addition, a significant interaction effect indicated that shyness decreased over time for those young adolescents who experienced few stressful life events, highlighting an understudied moderator of risk. Overall, findings have important implications for understanding the psychological concomitants of shyness as well as etiological models of shyness.



Parenting Interacts with Oxytocin Polymorphisms to Predict Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptom Development: A Novel Polygenic Approach

Abstract

Guided by a developmental psychopathology framework, research has increasingly focused on the interplay of genetics and environment as a predictor of different forms of psychopathology, including social anxiety. In these efforts, the polygenic nature of complex phenotypes such as social anxiety is increasingly recognized, but studies applying polygenic approaches are still scarce. In this study, we applied Principal Covariates Regression as a novel approach to creating polygenic components for the oxytocin system, which has recently been put forward as particularly relevant to social anxiety. Participants were 978 adolescents (49.4% girls; Mage T1 = 13.8 years). Across 3 years, questionnaires were used to assess adolescent social anxiety symptoms and multi-informant reports of parental psychological control and autonomy support. All adolescents were genotyped for 223 oxytocin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes. Using Principal Covariates Regression, these SNPs could be reduced to five polygenic components. Four components reflected the underlying linkage disequilibrium and ancestry structure, whereas the fifth component, which consisted of small contributions of many SNPs across multiple genes, was strongly positively associated with adolescent social anxiety symptoms, pointing to an index of genetic risk. Moreover, significant interactions were found with this polygenic component and the environmental variables of interest. Specifically, adolescents who scored high on this polygenic component and experienced less adequate parenting (i.e., high psychological control or low autonomy support) showed the highest levels of social anxiety. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of individual-by-environment models.



Sad, Scared, or Rejected? A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Social Avoidance in Chinese Children

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to empirically examine different conceptual mechanisms previously postulated to underlie the development of social avoidance in childhood. Participants were N = 601 children (321 boys, 280 girls) attending elementary schools (Mage = 10.21 years) and middle schools (Mage = 12.77 years) in Shanghai, P.R. China. Measures of motivations for social withdrawal (shyness, unsociability, social avoidance) and socio-emotional adjustment were collected using self-reports and peer nominations at two time-points separated by 9 months. Results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that: (1) social avoidance and symptoms of social anxiety were not reciprocally related over time; (2) Time 1 social avoidance predicted incremental change in Time 2 peer problems (whereas Time 1 peer problems did not predict incremental change in Time 2 social avoidance); and (3) Time 1 symptoms of depression significantly predicted incremental change in Time 2 social avoidance (whereas Time 1 social avoidance did not predict incremental change in Time 2 symptoms of depression). These results provide evidence in support of depressive symptoms (but not symptoms of social anxiety or peer problems) as a salient predictor of social avoidance. Results are discussed in terms of the development and implications of social avoidance in Chinese culture.



Early Childhood Predictors of Anxiety in Early Adolescence

Abstract

This longitudinal study examined a multitude of early childhood predictors of anxiety symptoms and disorders over an 8-year period. The purpose of the study was to identify early life predictors of anxiety across childhood and early adolescence in a sample of at-risk children. The sample included 202 preschool children initially identified as behaviorally inhibited or uninhibited between the ages of 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months. Temperament and familial environment variables were assessed using observation and parent report at baseline. Anxiety symptoms and disorders were assessed using questionnaires and diagnostic interviews at baseline (age 4), and at age 6, 9 and 12 years. In line with our hypotheses, the findings showed that preschool children were more likely to experience anxiety symptoms and disorders over time i) when the child was inhibited, ii) when there was a history of maternal anxiety disorders or iii) when mothers displayed high levels of overinvolvement. Further, the study identified a significant interaction effect between temperament and maternal overvinvolvement such that behaviorally inhibited preschoolers had higher anxiety symptoms at age 12, only in the presence of maternal overinvolvement at age 4. The increased risk of anxiety in inhibited children was mitigated when mothers demonstrated low levels of overinvolvement at age 4. This study provides evidence of both additive and interactive effects of temperament and family environment on the development of anxiety and provides important information for the identification of families who will most likely benefit from targeted early intervention.



Predicting Temperamentally Inhibited Young Children's Clinical-Level Anxiety and Internalizing Problems from Parenting and Parent Wellbeing: a Population Study

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore how some temperamentally inhibited young children and not others in the general population develop anxiety disorders and broader clinical-level internalizing (anxious/depressive) problems, with a focus on the family. A brief screening tool for inhibition was universally distributed to parents of children in their year before starting school across eight socioeconomically diverse government areas in Melbourne, Australia (307 preschool services). Screening identified 11% of all children as inhibited. We invited all parents of inhibited children to participate in a longitudinal prevention study. Participants were 545 parents of inhibited pre-schoolers (78% uptake) of whom 498 (91%) completed assessment one year later and 469 (86%) two years later. Parents completed questionnaires to assess parenting practices, parent wellbeing, and child internalizing problems. Parents also engaged in structured diagnostic interviews to assess child anxiety disorders. During the follow up period close to half of the inhibited young children had anxiety disorders and one in seven had clinical-level internalizing problems, with girls perhaps at higher risk. The family variables significantly predicted inhibited children's anxiety disorders and broader internalizing problems. For child anxiety disorders, overinvolved/protective parenting was particularly important for girls and boys, and poorer parent wellbeing contributed. For child anxious/depressive problems, harsh discipline was a consistent predictor for girls and boys, and poorer parent wellbeing again contributed. These etiological findings support early intervention for temperamentally inhibited young children that focuses on the family environment to prevent the development of mental health problems.



Multiple Trajectories in Anxious Solitary Youths: the Middle School Transition as a Turning Point in Development

Abstract

This study aimed to identify divergent patterns of individual continuity and change in anxious solitude (AS) in the last half of elementary school (3rd – 5th grade) and the first two years of middle school (6th – 7th grade), and test predictors and outcomes of these pathways. Participants were 688 youths (girls n = 354, 51.5%; M age at outset = 8.66 years, SD = 0.50). Latent class growth analyses identified two AS trajectory classes in elementary school (moderate-decreasing, high-increasing) and three in middle school (low-stable, low-increasing, high-decreasing). The elementary school moderate-decreasing class was two-and-a-half times more likely than others to end in the middle school low-stable class. In contrast, the elementary school high-increasing class was twice as likely as others to end in the middle school low-increasing class, and four times as likely to end in the middle school high-decreasing class. Peer exclusion predicted membership in increasing AS trajectory classes in both elementary and middle school, whereas the middle school high-decreasing AS trajectory class demonstrated decreasing peer exclusion during middle school. Likewise, inability to defend oneself predicted membership in increasing AS trajectory classes in both elementary and middle school, whereas membership in the middle school high-decreasing AS trajectory class was predicted by inability to defend oneself in elementary but not middle school. High-decreasing AS youths' improved ability to defend themselves in middle school appeared to be related to a cascade of improvements in related domains. In contrast, membership in increasing AS classes in elementary and middle school predicted symptoms of social anxiety and depression.



Multidimensional Emotion Regulation Moderates the Relation Between Behavioral Inhibition at Age 2 and Social Reticence with Unfamiliar Peers at Age 4

Abstract

Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament trait characterized by fear and wariness in novel situations, has been identified as a risk factor for later social reticence and avoidance of peer interactions. However, the ability to regulate fearful responses to novelty may disrupt the link between BI and socially reticent behavior. The present study examined how and whether both behaviorally-manifested and physiological indices of emotion regulation moderate the relation between BI and later social reticence. Participants in this study included 88 children followed longitudinally from ages 2 to 4. At age 2, children completed the BI Paradigm in which children's responses to novel objects and adults were observed. At age 4, children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed and mothers reported on children's negative emotionality and soothability. Social reticence at age 4 was observed during a free play session with 3 unfamiliar peers. Results from saturated path models revealed a significant two-way interaction between BI and baseline RSA and a three-way interaction between BI, negative emotionality, and baseline RSA when predicting socially reticent behavior at age 4. At high levels of baseline RSA and high levels of negative emotionality, the association between BI and social reticence was negative. The relation between BI and later social reticence was only positive and significant at low levels of baseline RSA combined with high levels of negative emotionality. The results suggest that either strong physiological regulation or low negative emotionality seems sufficient to buffer inhibited young children against later social reticence.



Developmental Trajectories of Shyness-Sensitivity from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence in China: Contributions of Peer Preference and Mutual Friendship

Abstract

This study examined trajectories of shyness-sensitivity and the contributions of peer relationships to these trajectories in Chinese children. Participants were 1061 school-age children (537 boys), initially in fifth grade (Mage = 11 years), in China. Longitudinal data on shyness-sensitivity were collected from peer assessments once a year for four years. In addition, peer nomination data on peer acceptance-rejection and mutual friendship were collected in the initial study. Four distinct shyness-sensitivity trajectories were identified: Low-Stable, Low-Increasing, Moderate-Decreasing, and High-Stable. Children with high peer acceptance scores were more likely to be in the High-Stable and Moderate-Decreasing trajectories than in the Low-Stable and Low-Increasing trajectories. The analysis of predictors of the within-trajectory growth rate indicated that children who were more liked by peers increased their shyness-sensitivity more slowly within the Low-Increasing trajectory and that children with mutual friendship involvement decreased their shyness-sensitivity more slowly within the Moderate-Decreasing trajectory. The results suggested that positive relationships might serve to attenuate developmental changes of shyness-sensitivity within these trajectories. The results were discussed in the Chinese context.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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