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Σάββατο, 27 Απριλίου 2019

Social Health and Behavior

Poor Activities of Daily Living Function Reflect Poor Quality of Life after Hip Fracture Surgery for Geriatric Patients
Wei-Ting Chang, Yi-Jie Kuo, Yu-Yun Huang, Ming-Jr Tsai, Yu-Pin Chen

Social Health and Behavior 2019 2(2):41-46

Introduction: With the aging of the population, hip fractures have become a major public health issue in the elderly. It is important to examine the loss of activities of daily living (ADL) and the quality of life (QoL) among the elderly after repair of hip fracture. The correlation between ADL and QoL over time after hip fracture surgery was also our major concern. Methods: A prospective study enrolling 117 geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery in a tertiary medical center was conducted between 2017 and 2018. All participants were evaluated with the EuroQol-5D for assessing QoL and the Barthel index for measuring ADL function at baseline, 3-and 6-month follow-ups after hip fracture surgery. Results: The mortality rate among geriatric patients after hip fracture surgery was 5.5% at 3 months and 9.1% at 6 months. In addition, both ADL function and QoL significantly deteriorated after 6 months of follow-up without improvement with time. After the 6-month follow-up, only 20% of geriatric patients undergoing repair for hip fracture were able to recover baseline ADL. The QoL at the 6-month follow-up was correlated with both cross-sectional and longitudinal ADL function after repair for hip fracture among geriatric patients. Conclusion: Functional impairment is common among geriatric patients after hip fracture surgery. Poor ADL could predict and reflect poor QoL after the 6-month follow-up. More emphasis should be put on preventing functional loss after hip fracture surgery in order for better QoL among geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. 


Socioeconomic Inequality of Elder Abuse in Qazvin, Iran
Zahra Hosseinkhani, Farzad Khodamoradi, Sara Sheikh

Social Health and Behavior 2019 2(2):47-51

Introduction: Socioeconomic status (SES) is often associated with elder abuse. This study aimed to determine SES inequality of elder abuse in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 683 (60–95 years) elders were included in the analysis in 2015. Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test was used to collect data on elder abuse. SES was measured through an asset-based method and principal component analysis. The concentration index and curve were used to measure SES inequality. Results: The concentration index for socioeconomic inequality of elder abuse was −0.0290 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.0498, −0.0081). This index based on residence showed elder abuse is more concentrated among rural elders with lower SES (C = −0.0739, 95% CI: [−0.112, −0.0356]). Conclusion: There is a slightly socioeconomic inequality of elder abuse among elders. Lower SES might be considered as a risk factor for elder abuse. Policymakers should plan for improvement in services to consider the role of SES in elder abuse. 


Effect of Peer Education on Physical Activity and Nutrition among Iranian Adolescents
Ali Damghanian, Gazal Sharietpanahi, Azita Khieltash, Hamid Barahimi

Social Health and Behavior 2019 2(2):52-57

Introduction: Due to the high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate nutrition among adolescents, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of peer-based education on physical activity and nutrition among adolescents. Methods: In a randomized field trial with control group, a total of 223 students with a mean age of 16.52 (0.9) years participated in the study. Students were randomly selected from four high schools of Tehran's 17th district, Iran, using the multistage clustered sampling method. Two females and two males high schools were randomly assigned as an intervention or a control group. After selecting peer educators, they were educated about nutrition and physical activity at two 90-min sessions. Then, peer educators were asked to educate their classmates. Data were collected using demographic, nutrition, and physical activity subscales of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II before and 3 months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance in SPSS version 24 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York). Results: Peer-based education improved girl's physical activity mean scores (16.19 ± 4.07–19.74 ± 4.25, P > 0.001), but no statistically significant effect on their nutrition. No statistically significant effect was observed after intervention on the nutritional status and physical activity of the male students. Conclusion: Peer education seemed to be a good method to improve physical activity among female students, but not their nutrition. In addition, physical activity and nutrition of male students were not improved by the peer education. Therefore, the future research using multidisciplinary approach which targets family involvement, and changes in physical activity and school nutrition policies are needed. 


Mental Health and Its Sociodemographic Determinants among High School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Qazvin City of Iran
Mehran Alijanzadeh

Social Health and Behavior 2019 2(2):58-63

Introduction: Adolescence is one of the most important stages of human life, and there is a lot of evidence in the literature that psychiatric disorders can be transmitted through adolescence social interactions in high school. The present study aimed to assess mental health and its sociodemographic determinants among high school students in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 600 female high school students from Qazvin were selected using cluster sampling. The 28-item General Health Questionnaire was administrated to collect data. t-tests, analysis of variance, and Pearson's correlation analysis were applied to analyze the data. Results: Mental disorders were found in 60% of the students with 3.3% suffered from severe disorders. The participants' mean score of mental health was 29.31 ± 14.63. Somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression were presented in 36%, 49.7%, 50%, and 41.3% of the students, respectively. Students' mental health was significantly related with their father's education and household income. However, students' season of birth, school grade, body mass index, grade point average, mother's education, and father's occupation were not significantly related with their mental health. Conclusion: Poor mental health was found to be highly frequent among female students. Low income and father's low education level were identified as the risk factors of poor mental health among female students in Qazvin. 


The Effect of Mothers' Group Counseling on the Health-Promoting Behaviors of Adolescent Girls
Monireh Pourshamsian, Maryam Mafi, Nezal Azh

Social Health and Behavior 2019 2(2):64-69

Introduction: Promoting adolescents' healthy behaviors through different strategies is essential to prevent the risks of adulthood chronic problems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of mothers' group counseling on the health-promoting behaviors of high school adolescent girls in Qazvin city, Iran. Methods: This single-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Qazvin, Iran. Participants were 100 guidance school female students and their mothers who were selected through multistage random sampling. The demographic data form and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile were used for data collection before and 2 months after the intervention. The intervention was conducted in four sessions lasting for 90–60 min. Results: There was no improvement in the mean score of health-promoting behaviors before the intervention in the control group (27 ± 20.313) and the intervention group (23.54 ± 138.86), but after the intervention in the intervention group, a significant improvement was observed with a mean difference of 12.90 in the intervention group whereas 5.26 in the control group. The highest increase was in stress and nutrition control with a mean difference of 3.06 and 2.74, respectively. The ANCOVA test also confirmed the effectiveness of education (P = 0.03, F = 4.43). Conclusion: Mothers' group counseling can improve adolescent health-promoting behaviors. Considering the importance of the role of mothers in protecting and promoting the health of adolescent girls, it is essential that maternal education and counseling are prioritized to increase the healthy behaviors of adolescent girls. 


Lifestyle and Preventive Behaviors of Osteoporosis among Women of Reproductive Age in Qazvin-Iran: A Cross Sectional Study
Leili Yekefallah, Leila Dehghankar, Mohaddeseh Aliakbari, Maryam Mafi

Social Health and Behavior 2019 2(2):70-75

Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent illness with many negative consequences that can decrease women's quality of life and daily life activities and even cause death. The aim of this study was to examine the lifestyle and preventive behaviors related to osteoporosis among women of reproductive age in Qazvin city, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 women (mean age = 30.75 ± 7.47 years) were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 15 questions on the patterns of nutrition, physical activity, and specific preventive behaviors related to osteoporosis and demographic factors was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Chi-square with Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model. Results: The study results showed that most women (73.3%) had a positive family history of osteoporosis and 65.3% of them consumed carbonated beverages at least twice a week. Furthermore, 46.7% of them used coffee twice a week. There was a statistically significant relationship between their age (P < 0.0001) and positive family history of osteoporosis (P = 0.05) with knowledge about osteoporosis. According to the logistic regression model, a statistically significant relationship was found between age and awareness of osteoporosis (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Women should be encouraged to change their lifestyle in order to prevent osteoporosis. Educational programs should be held, and educational posters should be installed in gathering areas in the city and health centers with regard to risk factors and preventive behaviors of osteoporosis among women of reproductive age. 


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