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Πέμπτη, 25 Απριλίου 2019

Functional Foods

Cholesterol-reducing effect of ergosterol is modulated via inhibition of cholesterol absorption and promotion of cholesterol excretion

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Wen-Sen He, Dandan Cui, Lingling Li, Li-Tao Tong, Jiaxin Rui, He Li, Huijuan Zhang, Xinqi Liu

Abstract

Ergosterol is the common sterol found in edible mushrooms. This study investigated the cholesterol-reducing effect of ergosterol and its related potential mechanism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups fed either a basic diet (NG) or one of three experimental diets, namely high-cholesterol diet (HC), and the two HC diets containing 0.5% ergosterol (EL) and 1.5% ergosterol (EH), respectively, for 8 weeks. Results demonstrated that feeding EL and EH diets decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) by 19.4–21.6%, low density lipoproptein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 42.0–42.6%, and TC/HDL-C ratio by 7.1–10.5%. This was accompanied by 46.8–53.2% reduction in liver cholesterol and 51.0–59.3% increase in fecal cholesterol excretion with up-regulation on gene expression of liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase (HMG-CoR). Results from micelles formation assay in vitro clearly demonstrated that ergosterol could significantly inhibit the entry of cholesterol into micelles. Therefore, the cholesterol-reducing effect of ergosterol was regulated by suppressing intestine cholesterol absorption and promoting the excretion of fecal cholesterol via modulating the expression of hepatic cholesterol-related genes.

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Strawberry tree honey as a new potential functional food. Part 2: Strawberry tree honey increases ROS generation by suppressing Nrf2-ARE and NF-кB signaling pathways and decreases metabolic phenotypes and metastatic activity in colon cancer cells

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Sadia Afrin, Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández, Danila Cianciosi, Francesca Pistollato, JiaoJiao Zhang, Mattia Pacetti, Adolfo Amici, Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez, Jesus Simal-Gandara, Stefano Bompadre, Josè L. Quiles, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Strawberry tree honey (STH) on oxidative stress, metabolic phenotype, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in adenocarcinoma (HCT-116) and metastatic (LoVo) colon cancer cells as well as in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). Significant oxidative stress was observed through the increase of intracellular ROS generation, lipid and protein damage and reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities in colon cancer cells; in HDF these effects were limited or none. The expression of NF-кB, p-IкBα, Nrf2 was suppressed after STH treatment in colon cancer cells. All the parameters of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis were reduced after STH treatment in cancer cells, while they were unchanged in HDF. Wound-closure percentages and the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, N-cadherin, β-catenin decreased, while those of E-cadherin increased after STH treatment in colon cancer cells. Thus, STH can be used for its potential in cancer prevention.

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Daily intake of Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 relieves fatigue and stress-related symptoms in male university Ekiden runners: A double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Daisuke Sawada, Yuki Kuwano, Hiroki Tanaka, Susumu Hara, Yoshihide Uchiyama, Tomonori Sugawara, Shigeru Fujiwara, Kazuhito Rokutan, Kensei Nishida

Abstract

The heat-inactivated, enteric-colonizing Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) ameliorates psychological stress-related symptoms. In this study, we examined effects of CP2305 on top athletes experiencing physical and mental stresses. Forty-nine male university Ekiden (long distance relay race) runners daily took the CP2305-containing beverage for 12 weeks during training for and competing in All-Japan university championships. The CP2305 intake significantly facilitated recovery from fatigue and relieved anxiety and depressive mood, compared with placebo intake. The CP2305 intake significantly prevented the training-induced reduction of hemoglobin and facilitated exercise-induced increase in serum growth hormone levels. The CP2305 intake significantly increased the alpha- and beta-diversities of fecal microbiota, and the compositions of Bifidobacteriumand Faecalibacterium. Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes indicated that CP2305 prevented the stress-induced changes in the expression of genes related to mitochondrial functions. Our results suggest that daily intake of paraprobiotic CP2305 may be beneficial to athletes facing stressful situations.

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Soyasaponin Ab alleviates postmenopausal obesity through browning of white adipose tissue

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Han-Jun Kim, Eun-Ji Choi, Hyo Sung Kim, Chan-Woong Choi, Sik-Won Choi, Sun-Lim Kim, Woo-Duck Seo, Sun Hee Do

Abstract

Postmenopausal obesity is becoming a serious global health concern. Soyasaponin Ab (SA) inhibits adipocyte differentiation; however, the preventive and therapeutic potential of SA in postmenopausal obesity has not been clearly established. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of SA in postmenopausal obesity in vitro and in vivo. SA inhibited adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and reduced lipid accumulation and lipid droplet formation. Moreover, SA significantly decreased weight gain, adipocyte area, serum metabolic profiles in OVX mice. SA also inhibited the lipid metabolism-related factors but increased the thermoregulatory factors in both in vitro and in vivo. SA treatment further increased energy expenditure through beige fat activation. Overall, we found that SA effectively accelerated energy consumption by stimulating beige fat activation, even under estrogen-deficient conditions. Thus, SA treatment may be a promising strategy for the prevention of postmenopausal obesity by promoting weight loss, reducing fat accumulation, and improving obesity-related metabolic disorders.

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Strawberry tree honey as a new potential functional food. Part 1: Strawberry tree honey reduces colon cancer cell proliferation and colony formation ability, inhibits cell cycle and promotes apoptosis by regulating EGFR and MAPKs signaling pathways

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Sadia Afrin, Francesca Giampieri, Danila Cianciosi, Francesca Pistollato, Johura Ansary, Mattia Pacetti, Adolfo Amici, Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez, Jesus Simal-Gandara, Josè L. Quiles, Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández, Maurizio Battino

Abstract

The aim of this work was to assess the phytochemical composition and anticancer effects of Strawberry-tree honey (STH) on cellular proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-116) and metastatic (LoVo) cancer cells. Kaempferol and gallic acid were the major phenolic compounds. STH showed higher cytotoxic and anti-colonogenic effects in a time- and dose-dependent manner; it arrested cell cycle in S and G2/M and regulated cell cycle genes, such as cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, p21Cip, p27Kip and p-RB. STH treatment promoted apoptosis by modulating key genes (p53, caspase-3, c-PARP) as well as intrinsic (Bax/Bcl2, Cyto C and caspase-9) and extrinsic (Fas L and caspase-8) apoptotic factors. STH also caused endoplasmic reticulum stress by increasing ATF-6 and XBP-1 expressions, suppressed EGFR, HER2 and downstream markers (p-Akt and p-mTOR) and elevated p-p38MAPK and p-ERK1/2. In conclusion, STH have shown a chemo-preventive action on different colon cancer cell models.

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Improvement of bioavailability for resveratrol through encapsulation in zein using electrospraying technique

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Heera Jayan, M. Maria Leena, S.K. Sivakama Sundari, J.A. Moses, C. Anandharamakrishnan

Abstract

Resveratrol has proven antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. However, poor water solubility, low bioavailability and UV light sensitivity hinder its usage in food applications. Encapsulation of resveratrol can help to overcome these problems. In this work, encapsulation by electrospraying was adopted, owing to the possibility of obtaining spherical and nano-sized particles at room temperature. This study proved that resveratrol can be efficiently encapsulated with zein without modifying its native form. Size of nanoencapsulated particles obtained ranged from 230 to 330 nm. Nanoencapsulation through electrospraying process yielded 68.49% encapsulation efficiency at 1:50 resveratrol to zein w/w%. Further, nanoencapsulated resveratrol showed better stability and sustained release profiles as compared to the unencapsulated form. Nanoencapsulation with zein protected resveratrol in simulated stomach conditions and released resveratrol in the intestinal condition. Additionally, nanoencapsulated resveratrol showed increased permeability of 1.15 fold in ex-vivo dynamic engineered small intestinal system which in turn relates to improved bioavailability. Prepared nanoparticles can be used for oral administration by incorporation into food products or in tablet form.

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Comparative analysis of prebiotic effects of seaweed polysaccharides laminaran, porphyran, and ulvan using in vitrohuman fecal fermentation

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Hyunbin Seong, Jae-Han Bae, Ji Sun Seo, Seul-Ah Kim, Tae-Jip Kim, Nam Soo Han

Abstract

Laminaran, porphyran, and ulvan are major seaweed polysaccharides in brown, red, and green algae, respectively. We compared their prebiotic effects using individual microbial fermentability test and in vitro fecal fermentation. The fermentability test showed that these polysaccharides were selectively utilized by Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, and Bacteroides (ΔOD580 nm, 0.2–1.0), while no growth of harmful bacteria was observed. In vitro fecal fermentation for 24 h showed growth stimulation effect of laminaran on Bifidobacteria (Δ8.3%/total bacteria) and Bacteroides (Δ13.8%/total bacteria) promoting the production of acetate and propionate. Ulvan exhibited same result on Bifidobacteria (Δ8.5%/total bacteria) and Lactobacillus (Δ6.8%/total bacteria) promoting the production of lactate and acetate; however, porphyran showed little prebiotic effect. Laminaran was fermented slowly compared to fructooligosaccharides and this may permit production of short-chain fatty acids in distal colon. This in vitro study demonstrates that the seaweed polysaccharides tested, particularly laminaran and ulvan, have prebiotic effects on microbiota in human colon.

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Effect of Konjac mannan oligosaccharides on diphenoxylate-induced constipation in mice

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Xiaoyan Liu, Sai Chen, Qiaojuan Yan, Yanxiao Li, Zhengqiang Jiang

Abstract

The effects of Konjac mannan oligosaccharides (KMOS) on diphenoxylate-induced constipation in mice were investigated in the present study. After administration with KMOS at 1800 mg/kg·bw, the weight and number of black feces within 24 h, and the gastrointestinal transit ratio were distinctly increased by 96.8%, 156.5% and 45.3%, respectively. Furthermore, KMOS regulated the levels of enteric nervous system parameters, including motilin, somatostatin, substance P, acetyl cholinesterase, endothelin and vasoactive intestinal peptide. Additionally, KMOS could recover the characteristics of small intestine villi and inhibit the reduction of mucosal thickness. KMOS administration produced more short chain fatty acids and lactic acid compared with the control group. The availability of 5-hydroxytryptamine and the expression of serotonin transporter were ameliorated in the KMOS treatment groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that KMOS could be considered as a functional food material for regulating intestinal function and alleviating constipation.

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Attenuation of high-fat diet-induced fatty liver through PPARα activation by stevioside

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Chang-Hao Jia, Jun-Yan Zhang, Wei Shen, Xi Zhao, Mei-Lin Xie

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the effect of stevioside on fatty liver. Rats with hyperlipidemic fatty liver were treated with 75–150 mg/kg stevioside for 6 weeks. After oral administration of stevioside, the levels of serum and hepatic lipids and degree of hepatic steatosis were decreased. Stevioside treatment increased the expressions of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A proteins and decreased the expressions of hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase proteins. Following treatment of oleic acid-stimulated hepatocytes with 100–400 μM stevioside, the intracellular lipids were also decreased. In the hepatocytes of PPARα gene silence, the lipid-lowering effect of stevioside was abolished, and its regulatory effects on PPARα-mediated target proteins were reversed. These findings demonstrated that stevioside was effective in treating fatty liver, and its mechanisms were associated with the increment of hepatic PPARα expression and subsequent modulation of its target gene expressions.

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In vitro probiotic properties of selected lactobacilli and multi-strain consortium on immune function, gut barrier strengthening and gut hormone secretion

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 57

Author(s): Yanath Belguesmia, Jeanne Alard, Rezak Mendil, Rozenn Ravallec, Corinne Grangette, Djamel Drider, Benoit Cudennec

Abstract

Lactobacillus reuteri ICVB395, L. gasseri ICVB392 and L. gasseri ICVB396 strains, isolated from vaginal microbiota, were investigated for their probiotic traits. L. reuteri ICVB395 strain and the 3RG consortium, associating these three Lactobacillus strains, showed the best anti-inflammatory profile on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) while L. gasseri ICVB392 was the most potent together with the 3RG consortium to strengthen a Caco-2-derived epithelial barrier. The three studied strains induced various secretion levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) by STC-1 enteroendocrine cells, whereas the 3RG consortium was globally less performing. Specific antagonists of protein G receptors, CaSR (Calcium-Sensing Receptor) and GPRC6A (G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A), and inhibitor of the peptide transporter Pept-1 provoked differential modulation of the GLP-1 and CCK secretion by STC-1 cells, indicating that different mechanisms are involved in the capacity of lactobacilli and the 3RG to modulate gut hormones secretion.

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