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Σάββατο, 27 Απριλίου 2019

Allergy and Asthma

The Role of KIT Mutations in Anaphylaxis

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Gain of function KIT mutations are detected in clonal mast cell diseases, namely mastocytosis and monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are crucial because of their association with severe and life-threatening anaphylaxis. KIT mutations also have implications for targeted therapies of mast cell disorders. This review article strives to serve as an overview of the role of clonal mast cell disorders in anaphylaxis while elucidating current and future therapies.

Recent Findings

Clonal mast cell disease has been increasingly diagnosed in patients with severe hymenoptera allergy and those with recurrent unexplained anaphylaxis. The current state of knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of mastocytosis with a particular focus on anaphylaxis and its triggers which are described in this context. Novel and forthcoming treatments are discussed including the relevance of KIT mutation status.

Summary

This review provides an overview of the role of KIT mutations in mastocytosis and anaphylaxis, and highlights emerging therapies for mastocytosis, targeting these mutations.



GRADE-ing the Benefit/Risk Equation in Food Immunotherapy

Abstract

Purpose of Review

We reviewed the existing evidence base to desensitisation for food allergy, applying the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to discuss whether desensitisation is likely to become part of routine treatment for patients with food allergy.

Recent Findings

Desensitisation for food allergy to peanut, egg and cow's milk is efficacious, but whether such interventions are cost-effective is less clear, due to the issues over a sustained desensitisation effect and the increase in allergic reactions occurring in patients on treatment. Few studies have assessed the change in health-related quality of life associated with treatment, and most have not considered discordance between parent-reported changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes compared to those of the patients themselves; none to date have controlled for the improvement in HRQL occurring after initial challenge which will confound outcomes.

Summary

The lack of longer-term safety and cost-effectiveness data, as well as an absence of current consensus in the reporting of patient-relevant outcomes, must be addressed in order to be able to recommend the introduction of desensitisation as a routine treatment in healthcare systems.



Th9 Cells in Allergic Disease

Abstract

Purposes of Review

Th9 cells are recognized as a novel subset of effector T helper cells that preferentially produce IL-9. Here, we provide a current update on the reports related to the function of Th9 cells in allergic inflammatory diseases.

Recent Findings

The effector Th9 cells differentiating from naïve T helper cells have recently been identified. Because of accumulating findings of Th9 cells in many inflammatory diseases, including allergic diseases, diverse functions of Th9 cells in regulating immune responses have been suggested. Related reports indicate multiple sources of IL-9 besides Th9 cells and their association with the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and food allergy. More recently, elements of the epigenetic landscape involving in the regulation of IL-9 by Th9 cells have been identified to be the potential target for allergic inflammation.

Summary

This review provides the most recent information about Th9 cells and their contribution in airway allergic disease, skin, and food allergy.



Evaluating Penicillin Allergies Without Skin Testing

Abstract

Purpose of Review

An unconfirmed penicillin allergy is known to confer significant risk to patients. Only a small minority of patients labeled with penicillin allergy will be confirmed to be hypersensitive with the current reference standard test, an oral amoxicillin therapeutic dose challenge. Skin testing has been recommended prior to oral challenges to reduce the risk of severe acute challenge reactions. The rate of severe acute anaphylactic reactions with oral amoxicillin is currently extremely low. Unfortunately, penicillin skin testing, as commonly performed, has a high rate of false positive results.

Recent Findings

Encouraging skin testing in all individuals with an unconfirmed penicillin allergy, prior to a confirmatory oral challenge, would be technically difficult, make testing all individuals with an unconfirmed penicillin allergy very unlikely, and ultimately increase the risk to patients because of suboptimal antibiotic use. Most patients, who are appropriate candidates for a direct oral amoxicillin challenge, to confirm current penicillin tolerance, can be safely identified by their clinical histories. Higher risk individuals, those with a history of anaphylaxis or other acute onset potentially IgE-mediated reaction such as hives within 6 h of the first dose of the last course of a penicillin, may benefit from properly performed puncture and intradermal skin testing, using commercially available penicilloyl-polylysine, prior to an oral challenge, if skin test negative.

Summary

Direct oral amoxicillin challenges in low-risk individuals are well accepted by patients and a safe and effective part of penicillin allergy delabeling.



Contributions of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To review innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and their role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).

Recent Findings

The immune system consists of the innate and adaptive response. Until the recognition of ILCs, chronic inflammatory diseases were characterized by cytokines linked only to T helper cells. However, these immune responses are now described more broadly to include contributions from both the innate and adaptive immunity. In CRS, focus had been on ILC2s in CRS with nasal polyps. These studies also highlight the importance of epithelial cell–derived cytokines in coordinating these responses. In addition to indirect crosstalk via cytokines, ILCs and T helper cells can utilize the OX40/OX40 ligand and major histocompatibility complex class II pathways to directly interact and coordinate responses.

Summary

In addition to T helper cells, ILCs contribute to the inflammatory response associated with CRS. The understanding of these cells along with pathways that activate and perpetuate these cells leads to new potential therapeutic targets for CRS treatment.



Exosomes in Allergic Airway Diseases

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review will cover what is known regarding exosomes and allergy, and furthermore discuss novel mechanism of exosome-mediated immune modulation and metabolic regulation via the transfer of mitochondria.

Recent Findings

Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from the endosome that play a direct role in governing physiological and pathological conditions by transferring bioactive cargo such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids (miRNA, mRNA, DNA), and metabolites. Recent evidence suggest that exosomes may signal in autocrine but, most importantly, in paracrine and endocrine manner, being taken up by neighboring cells or carried to distant sites. Exosomes also mediate immunogenic responses, such as antigen presentation and inflammation. In asthma and allergy, exosomes facilitate cross-talk between immune and epithelial cells, and drive site-specific inflammation through the generation of pro-inflammatory mediators like leukotrienes. Recent studies suggest that myeloid cell-generated exosomes transfer mitochondria to lymphocytes.

Summary

Exosomes are nano-sized mediators of the immune system which can modulate responses through antigen presentation, and the transfer of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. In addition to conventional mechanisms of immune modulation, exosomes may act as a novel courier of functional mitochondria that is capable of modulating the recipient cells bioenergetics, resulting in altered cellular responses. The transfer of mitochondria and modulation of bioenergetics may result in immune activation or dampening depending on the context.



Microbial Adjuncts for Food Allergen Immunotherapy

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Food allergen immunotherapy may benefit from adjunct therapies to enhance safety and efficacy. We review preclinical studies investigating the effects of probiotics and other microbial-based interventions on oral tolerance, describe the human clinical trial evidence thus far for microbial adjuncts, and discuss steps for translating research findings in this area to clinical therapy.

Recent Findings

Murine studies support that microbial-based interventions confer protection against sensitization and may augment treatment efficacy for food allergy. Microbial adjunct therapies can promote regulatory T cells and modulate Th1 vs. Th2 responses. There is a wide array of novel modalities utilizing microbial components. Ongoing efforts are focused on translating preclinical data into potential treatments.

Summary

Probiotics, prebiotics, and microbial components have all been examined as microbial adjunct therapies in murine models of food allergy. The effects of probiotics appear to be strain-specific. Prebiotics and bacterial components are innovative modalities to modulate oral tolerance. Better characterization of dysbiosis in human cohorts with food allergy, deeper mechanistic understanding of microbial adjunct therapies, safety evaluation, and careful clinical trial design will be crucial for the development of microbial adjuncts for food allergen immunotherapy. Microbial adjunct therapies have the potential to enhance the efficacy, safety, and durability of food allergen immunotherapy.



Osteitis in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Osteitis is recognized as a common factor in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). There is evidence for the association of osteitis with revision surgeries and CRS severity, in terms of higher Lund-Mackay scores. This is a narrative review on the osteitis in CRS patients.

Recent Findings

Evidence to date is inconclusive with regard to the etiology and pathogenesis of this bony thickening. Histopathology of osteitis in primary CRS is likely a process of neo-osteogenesis and bone remodeling. For better understanding, various associating factors have been studied including an inflammatory pattern of rhinosinusitis. Recent studies have associated osteitis with nasal polyps and tissue eosinophilia with the increase in periostin expression and P-glycoprotein mucosal expression. There is no association of osteitis to symptoms or quality of life. Osteitis is an outcome of neo-osteogenesis rather than inflammatory processes in CRS patients without a prior history of surgery. While CT has become a staple in osteitis assessment, the standards for grading osteitic severity remain in an experimental stage. There is no association between the presence or severity of osteitis at the time of surgery and clinical outcomes at 1 year after surgery.

Summary

This review provides a comprehensive overview of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and correlation with clinical and biological factors of osteitis in CRS patients.



Chlorhexidine Allergy: On the Rise and Often Overlooked

Abstract

Purpose of Review

In recent years, the risk of allergy to chlorhexidine is increasingly recognised. In this review, we discuss why the allergy is so easily overlooked and point out several preventative initiatives that can minimise the risk of both chlorhexidine sensitisation and allergy development and accidental re-exposure in patients with chlorhexidine allergy. Testing for chlorhexidine allergy is also discussed.

Recent Findings

Numerous reports have been published from many different specialties. Symptoms range from mild skin symptoms to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Testing for chlorhexidine allergy is based on skin testing and in vitro testing. Recently, it was found that both skin prick testing and specific IgE have high sensitivities and specificities.

Summary

This review gives an overview of chlorhexidine allergy with a special focus on preventative initiatives and testing.



The Role of Staphylococcus aureus in Patients with Chronic Sinusitis and Nasal Polyposis

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is correlated with the development of persistent severe inflammatory disease of the upper airway including chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). The presence of S. aureusis associated with atopic disease including allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis and is associated with poor outcomes.

Recent Findings

Several different strains of S. aureus generate different toxins and gene products that can account for organism pathogenicity. S. aureus bacteria and its antigens shape the bacterial and fungal microbiome and the mucosal niche which generates host responses that can account for inflammation. The multiple disease phenotypes and molecular endotypes seen in CRSwNP can be characterized by T-helper cell environment within the inflammatory milieu, the presence of epithelial barrier dysfunction, aberrant eicosanoid metabolism, poor wound healing, and dysfunctional host-bacteria interactions which lead to recalcitrant disease and worse surgical outcomes.

Summary

Understanding the pathomechanisms that S. aureus utilizes to promote nasal polyp formation, prolonged tissue inflammation, and bacterial dysbiosis are essential in our efforts to identify new therapeutic approaches to resolve this chronic inflammatory process.



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