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Δευτέρα, 29 Απριλίου 2019

Protoplasma

How the activity of natural enemies changes the structure and metabolism of the nutritive tissue in galls? Evidence from the Palaeomystella oligophaga (Lepidoptera) - Macairea radula (Metastomataceae) system

The original version of this article unfortunately contains an error. The correct caption of Figures 2 and 3 are shown in this paper.



Correction to: Preprophase-band positioning in isolated tobacco BY-2 cells: evidence for a principal role of nucleus-cell cortex interaction in default division-plane selection

The original version of this article unfortunately contains a mistake.



The power of time—how to set up a rhythm


De novo assembly and transcriptome of Pfaffia glomerata uncovers the role of photoautotrophy and the P450 family genes in 20-hydroxyecdysone production

Abstract

Pfaffia glomerata is a medically important species because it produces the phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). However, there has been no ready-to-use transcriptome data available in the literature for this plant. Here, we present de novo transcriptome sequencing of RNA from P. glomerata in order to investigate the 20-E production as well as to understand the biochemical pathway of secondary metabolites in this non-model species. We then analyze the effect of photoautotrophy on the production of 20-E genes phylogenetically identified followed by expression analysis. For this, total messenger RNA (mRNA) from leaves, stems, roots, and flowers was used to construct indexed mRNA libraries. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 164,439 transcripts were annotated. In addition, the effect of photoautotrophy in two genes putatively involved in the 20-E synthesis pathway was analyzed. The Phantom gene (CYP76C), a precursor of the route, showed increased expression in P. glomerata plants cultured under photoautotrophic conditions. This was accompanied by increased production of this metabolite indicating a putative involvement in 20-E synthesis. This work reveals that several genes in the P. glomerata transcriptome are related to secondary metabolism and stresses, that genes of the P450 family participate in the 20-E biosynthesis route, and that plants cultured under photoautotrophic conditions promote an upregulated Phantom gene and enhance the productivity of 20-E. The data will be used for future investigations of the 20-E synthesis pathway in P. glomerata while offering a better understanding of the metabolism of the species.



Role of Ca 2+ as protectant under heat stress by regulation of photosynthesis and membrane saturation in Anabaena PCC 7120

Abstract

The present study was aimed at understanding the effects of heat stress on selected physiological and biochemical parameters of a model cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC 7120 in addition to amelioration strategy using exogenous Ca2+. A comparison of the cells exposed to heat stress (0–24 h) in the presence or absence of Ca2+ clearly showed reduction in colony-forming ability and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to loss in the viability of cells of Ca2+-deficient cultures. There was higher level of saturation in membrane lipids of the cells supplemented with Ca2+ along with higher accumulation of proline. Similarly, higher quantum yield (7.8-fold) in Ca2+-supplemented cultures indicated role of Ca2+ in regulation of photosynthesis. Relative electron transport rate (rETR) decreased in both the sets with the difference in the rate of decrease (slow) in Ca2+-supplemented cultures. The Ca2+-supplemented sets also maintained high levels of open reaction centers of PS II in comparison to Ca2+-deprived cells. Increase in transcripts of both subunits ((rbcL and rbcS) of RubisCO from Ca2+-supplemented Anabaena cultures pointed out the role of Ca2+ in sustenance of photosynthesis of cells via CO2 fixation, thus, playing an important role in maintaining metabolic status of the heat-stressed cyanobacterium.



Comparative cytogenetics of the ACPT clade (Anacampserotaceae, Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, and Talinaceae): a very diverse group of the suborder Cactineae, Caryophyllales

Abstract

The clade ACPT (Anacampserotaceae, Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, and Talinaceae) is the most diverse lineage of the subordem Cactineae. The relationships between these families are still uncertain, with different topologies suggested by phylogenetic analyses with several combinations of markers. Different basic numbers (x) have been suggested for each family and for the subord, often in a contestable way. Comparative cytogenetic has helped to understand the evolutionary relationships of phylogenetically poorly resolved groups, as well as their mechanisms of karyotype evolution. The karyotype evolution in representatives of Cactineae was analyzed, focusing on the ACPT clade, through the analysis of chromosome number in a phylogenetic bias. The phylogeny obtained showed a well-resolved topology with support for the monophyly of the five families. Although a chromosomal number is known for less than 30% of the Cactineae species, the analyses revealed a high karyotype variability, from 2n = 8 to 2n = 110. The analysis of character reconstruction of the ancestral haploid numbers (p) suggested p = 12 for Cactineae, with distinct basic numbers for the clade family ACPT: Cactaceae and Montiaceae (p = 11), Talinaceae (p = 12), and Anacampserotaceae and Portulacaceae (p = 9). Talinaceae, Anacampserotaceae, and Cactaceae were stable, while Portulaca and Montiaceae were karyotypically variable. The chromosome evolution of this group was mainly due to events of descending disploidy and poliploidy. Our data confirm that the low phylogenetic resolution among the families of the ACPT clade is due to a divergence of this clade in a short period of time. However, each of these families can be characterized by basic chromosome numbers and unique karyotype evolution events.



Elevated gibberellin enhances lignin accumulation in celery ( Apium graveolens L.) leaves

Abstract

Gibberellin (GA) is a phytohormone of a biguanide compound that plays an important role throughout the life cycle of a plant. Lignin, a phenylalanine-derived aromatic polymer, can enhance the water transport function and structural resistance of cell walls. This function is also the core on biology of higher terrestrial plants. An appropriate lignin level is important to the quality of leafy vegetables, such as celery. The relationship between gibberellin levels and the occurrence of lignification has not been reported in celery. In this study, the leaf blades and petioles of celery cultivars 'Liuhe Huangxinqin' and 'Jinnan Shiqin' were used as materials, and different concentrations of exogenous gibberellin were applied to analyze the growth and lignin distribution of leaf blades and petioles. It was found that gibberellin treatment could influence the lignin content in celery leaves. Autofluorescence analysis under ultraviolet (UV) excitation showed that gibberellin treatment caused lignification of celery leaf tissue. The expression profiles of 12 genes related to lignin synthesis changed with the increase of gibberellin concentration. Our results showed that gibberellin played a significant role in the accumulation of lignin in the development of celery leaves. This provides a basis for further study on the regulation of lignin metabolism in plants and exerts a vital part in the application of plant growth regulators to production.



Cyclosis-mediated intercellular transmission of photosynthetic metabolites in Chara revealed with chlorophyll microfluorometry

Abstract

Symplastic interconnections of plant cells via perforations in adjoining cell walls (plasmodesmata) enable long-distance transport of photoassimilates and signaling substances required for growth and development. The pathways and features of intercellular movement of assimilates are often examined with fluorescent tracers whose molecular dimensions are similar to natural metabolites produced in photosynthesis. Chlorophyll fluorescence was recently found to be a sensitive noninvasive indicator of long-distance intracellular transport of physiologically produced photometabolites in characean internodes. The present work shows that the chlorophyll microfluorometry has a potential for studying the cell-to-cell transport of reducing substances released by local illumination of one internode and detected as the fluorescence increase in the neighbor internode. The method provides temporal resolution in the time frame of seconds and can be used to evaluate permeability of plasmodesmata to natural components released by illuminated chloroplasts. The results show that approximately one third of the amount of photometabolites released into the streaming cytoplasm during a 30-s pulse of local light permeates across the nodal complex with the characteristic time of ~ 10 s. The intercellular transport was highly sensitive to moderate elevations of osmolarity in the bath solution (150 mM sorbitol), which contrasts to the view that only transnodal gradients in osmolarity (and internal hydrostatic pressure) have an appreciable influence on plasmodesmal conductance. The inhibition of cell-to-cell transport was reversible and specific; the sorbitol addition had no influence on photosynthetic electron transport and the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming. The conductance of transcellular pores increased in the presence of the actin inhibitor cytochalasin d but the cell-to-cell transport was eventually suppressed due to the deceleration and cessation of cytoplasmic streaming. The results show that the permeability of plasmodesmata to low-molecular photometabolites is subject to upregulation and downregulation.



Polarity, planes of cell division, and the evolution of plant multicellularity

Abstract

Organisms as diverse as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals manifest a property called "polarity." The literature shows that polarity emerges as a consequence of different mechanisms in different lineages. However, across all unicellular and multicellular organisms, polarity is evident when cells, organs, or organisms manifest one or more of the following: orientationaxiation, and asymmetry. Here, we review the relationships among these three features in the context of cell division and the evolution of multicellular polarity primarily in plants (defined here to include the algae). Data from unicellular and unbranched filamentous organisms (e.g., Chlamydomonas and Ulothrix) show that cell orientation and axiation are marked by cytoplasmic asymmetries. Branched filamentous organisms (e.g., Cladophora and moss protonema) require an orthogonal reorientation of axiation, or a localized cell asymmetry (e.g., "tip" growth in pollen tubes and fungal hyphae). The evolution of complex multicellular meristematic polarity required a third reorientation of axiation. These transitions show that polarity and the orientation of the future plane(s) of cell division are dyadic dynamical patterning modules that were critical for multicellular eukaryotic organisms.



Anther and pollen development in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.) in relation to winter dormancy

Abstract

Anther and pollen development is a highly conserved process in angiosperms, but while pollen formation in annual plants occurs in a few days, in temperate woody perennials, it requires several months. How anther and pollen development is framed in terms of seasonality plays a clear part in reproductive success. In this study, seasonal anther and pollen development is characterized in two sweet cherry cultivars over 2 years, paying special attention to the period of dormancy and unveiling the role of starch in this process. We evaluated starch content from the autumn until bud burst with the help of an image analysis system fitted to a light microscope. Microscope observations allowed the temporal relationship of pollen development to the phenological stages of flower and bud development to be determined. In both cultivars and years, anther and pollen development followed the same pattern. Development was halted by dormancy, when the anthers showed no morphological changes until several weeks after chilling fulfillment, until the milder temperatures reactivated development. After dormancy, starch was accumulated in the connective tissue until tracheary element differentiation. Quantification of starch in the connective tissue of anthers revealed its importance in supporting pollen meiosis and subsequent anther growth.


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