Πέμπτη, 25 Απριλίου 2019

Oral Health and Research

Role of digital technology in prosthodontics: A step toward improving dental care
Chanchal Gupta, Anil Mittal

Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research 2018 4(2):35-41

Advancements in dental technology enable patients to receive modern solutions of conventional dental problems. Prosthodontists can incorporate digital technology into their practices to improve their workflow efficiency and ease of collaboration with laboratories. In this article, digital technologies that are available for prosthetic dentistry such as digital radiography, electronic prescriptions, computerized case presentations, virtual articulator and facebow, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing restorations, digital impressions, and shade selection are described along with emphasis on advantages and limitations of digital technology. 

Differential expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis markers in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in young and old patients
Saede Atarbashi-Moghadam, Dorsa Yousef Monji, Mahshid Namdari, Sepideh Mokhtari

Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research 2018 4(2):42-46

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of tongue. Some investigations show that tongue SCC (TSCC) in young patients has a more aggressive behavior. Tumor progression is believed to be influenced by tumor cell proliferation as well as anti-apoptotic activity. The present study was conducted to assess ki-67 and bcl-2 expression in TSCC between young and older patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty paraffin block sections of TSCC were stained with monoclonal antibodies against bcl-2 and Ki-67. Data were analyzed by Mann–Whitney and Spearman correlation coefficient test. Results: Samples from 19 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 56 years, were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups, A (>45 years) and B (≤45 years). Clinical and microscopic data such as tumor size, grade, and muscle invasion were extracted. Bcl-2 expression was negative for all the samples except one. Ki-67 expression was assessed as a percentage of Ki-67-positive neoplastic cells and scored subsequently. There was a significant association between the expression of ki-67 with microscopic grade and age (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the more aggressive behavior of TSCC in younger age may be related with ki-67 expression and may serve as a valuable prognostic factor. 

Antimicrobial efficacy of medium-chain fatty acids, 2% Chlorhexidine, and 5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study
Krishnapriya Devan, Faizal C Peedikayil, TP Chandru, Soni Kottayi, N Dhanesh, K Rahul Suresh

Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research 2018 4(2):47-51

Background: The current trend globally is to “Go Natural.” Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are natural derivatives with proven antimicrobial properties. Enterococcus faecalis is a persistent microbe frequently associated with endodontic treatment failures. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of MCFAs, 2% chlorhexidine, and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: Lauric acid (LA), decanoic acid (DA), octanoic acid (OA), 2% chlorhexidine, 5% NaOCl, and ethanol were used against pure strains of E. faecalis. Six wells of approximately 10 mm were bored in Mueller-Hinton Agar medium using a well cutter and the different test solutions were added. The plates were then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The antibacterial activity was assayed by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone formed around the wells. Results: The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests. There was a statistically significant difference between the six groups compared. Maximum antibacterial activity was shown by 2% chlorhexidine (21.66 mm), followed by LA (17.66 mm) and NaOCl (16.33 mm). The mean zone of inhibition exhibited by DA and OA were 14.00 mm and 12.33 mm, respectively. Least antibacterial activity was shown by ethanol (9.66 mm). Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that LA exhibited antimicrobial efficacy comparable to that of 5% NaOCl. However, the clinical efficacy of LA must take into account the intricate canal anatomy and polymicrobial nature of root canal infections. 

Reasons for permanent tooth extraction and the current status of the existing teeth among patients visiting dental clinics in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh: A cross-sectional study
Nijampatnam P. M. Pavani, P Srinivas, T Devaki, Viswa Chaitanya Chandu, Nandita Rani Kothia, Suresh Chand Yaddanapalli

Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research 2018 4(2):52-58

Introduction: Tooth loss impairs the quality of life, often substantially, and affects the well-being of the person as missing teeth can interfere with chewing ability, diction, and esthetics. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the present research was to investigate the reasons for extractions of permanent teeth and the current status of the existing teeth in adult patients visiting dental clinics in Guntur. Methodology: Places where the dental services are available were stratified. One government general hospital (GGH) in Guntur where dental services are available and one teaching-based private dental institution (Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences [SIDS]) were included in the study. Fifteen private clinics were randomly selected from a total of 107 dental clinics present in Guntur city. The estimated sample size was 746. It was rounded off to 750 for the purpose of convenient segregation. The survey pro forma prepared included demographic information along with clinical examination. Discussion: The highest (2.92) mean number of teeth to be extracted was seen in SIDS followed by GGH (1.94), and the difference in all the three types of clinics was statistically significant (P = 0.000). Post hoc test showed significant difference between private dental clinics and SIDS, private teaching dental institution and the other two types of clinics, and GGH and SIDS. Conclusion: It was revealed from the study that dental caries and periodontitis are the most common reasons for extraction. 

Atrophic lichen planus of gingiva and its management
Rashmi Ganesh Phadnis, Lata Kale, Anuja Pawar, Manjusha Jadhav

Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research 2018 4(2):59-61

Lichen planus (LP) is an autoimmune mucocutatenous disorder. Orally, the most commonly involved sites are buccal mucosa, tongue, and gingiva. About 10% of the patients with oral LP have lesions confined to the gingiva. The purpose of this article is to report a case of atrophic LP of gingiva in 30-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of burning sensation in the oral cavity from the past 1 year. Histopathological examination was carried out to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was treated with topical corticosteroids using occlusal tray following which the lesions and symptoms of burning sensation in the mouth are resolved. Thus, this case report highlights the correct diagnosis and the treatment plan and timely management of such cases. 

Management of a mid-treatment flare-up
Cinderella D'souza, Vanitha U Shenoy, MV Sumanthini, Akash More

Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research 2018 4(2):62-65

The primary aim of endodontic treatment is biomechanical preparation of the root canal and to hermetically seal it with no discomfort to the patient, providing conditions for the periradicular tissues to heal. The occurrence of interappointment pain and swelling is not a rare event even when endodontic treatment has followed acceptable standards. A flare-up can be defined as pain and/or swelling of the facial soft tissues and the oral mucosa in the area of the endodontically treated tooth that occur within a few hours or a few days following the root canal treatment, when clinical symptoms are strongly expressed and the patient visits a health care institution sooner than scheduled. Flare-up can manifests as pain of varying intensity which occurs following an access opening without instrumentation. Although the reasons for such exacerbations are not always clear, there are a number of hypotheses for its occurance: alteration of the local adaptation syndrome, changes in periapical tissue pressure, microbial factors, effects of chemical mediators, changes in cyclic nucleotides, immunological phenomena and various psychological factors. This case report describes the management of Mid-treatment flare-up in the Permanent Maxillary anterior teeth. 

Management of extraoral sinus via nonsurgical root canal treatment
Leena Padhye, Ian Naipaul Jagan, Priyanka Unnikrishnan, Lalitagauri Mandke, Radhika Kulkarni, Nikita Toprani

Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research 2018 4(2):66-69

Cutaneous sinus tracts of dental origin have been well-documented in the medical literature. However, these lesions continue to be a diagnostic dilemma. A review of several reported cases reveals that patients have had multiple surgical excisions, radiotherapy, multiple biopsies, and multiple antibiotic regimens, all of which have failed, with a recurrence of the cutaneous sinus tract, as the primary etiology was dental that was never correctly diagnosed or addressed. This case report demonstrates the healing of an extraoral draining sinus by means of conventional nonsurgical root canal treatment. 

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